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E-agribusiness in India: Prospects and Constraints, S. Das & B.C. Biswas (FAI, 10 Shaheed Jit Singh Marg, New Delhi 67) Fert.News  46(12) 51-54, 59 (2001) 


Information Technology (IT) is revolutionizing the world.  It is becoming integral part of almost all the sectors.  Agricultural business is not an exception. E-commerce in agribusiness have enormous potential.  India can become a major player in global agricultural trade by harnessing the potential emerging from e-agribusiness, because, it has an edge over others due to its vast resource base and agricultural diversity.  The paper deals with the concept, scope and advantages of e-agribusiness.  Global scenario vis-a-vis Indian perspective highlighting the Fertilizer Sector as well as in post WTO era have been discussed.  Some constraints are also mentioned and their remedial measures suggested.


Role of IT in Agribusiness, Sovan Chakrabarty (Shriram Fert.Chem., New Delhi) Fert.News 45(9) 53-56 (2000) 


In the new world order “e” is the buzz letter these days - e-commerce, e-marketing, e-business, e-tailing ........ It is the “e” platform on which every enterprise, worldwide, is riding on for its business solutions.  This technology breakthrough has caught on in our country too, and the dot com fever is spreading like wild fire.  Can agribusiness in our country leverage this revolution in Information Technology ?  Will it be advantageous to our farming community and can it bring smiles to their is ..... Why not ?  The paper deals with these aspects.


Bankrolling for Indian Agribusiness: Rabobank, Agriculture Today, 1(6) 28-29 (1999)


Rabobank, one of the foremost financial institutions of the world ,eyes Indian agribusiness industry as a potential target for gainful funding.


Muscling Up Agribusiness : Agribanking, Agriculture Today 1(4) 14-15 (1998)


India, predominantly an agrobased country with about 70 per cent population living in more than 5 lakh villages , has a vast potential for a giant leap into agribusiness. Steps are suggested to increase agribusiness in the country.  The paper emphasizes that credit institutions need to mend their ways so as to provide much needed impetus to agribusiness.




Sulphur in Balanced Fertilisation in Red and Lateritic Soils of Chhotanagpur Plateau of Bihar, A.K. Sarkar  et.al. (BAU, Dept.Soil Sci.Agric.Chem., Ranchi 834 006) Proceedings of the TSI/FAI/IFA Workshop on Sulphur in Balanced Fertilisation held on February 7-8, 2000 at New Delhi, p.65-72, New Delhi, FAI, 2000 


The highest extent of S deficiency was noted in soils of Lohardaga district (55.7 per cent).  Available sulphur in surface soils of farmers fields varied from 2.3 to 39.1 mg kg-1 in Ranchi, 16 to 55.9 mg kg-1 in Lohardaga and 0.6 to 73 mg kg-1 in Dumka districts.  Total sulphur in these soils ranged from 29.3 to 1461.0 mg kg-1 with an average mean value of 574.2 mg kg-1 soil.  Field experiments were conducted on acid soils (paleustalf) of Bihar plateau during 1997-99 at Ranchi and Dumka to study the direct and residual effect of added S levels through SSP as a source of sulphur in groundnut-wheat and groundnut-mustard cropping systems, respectively.  Results reveal that direct effect of S produced the pod yield response of groundnut to the tune of 300 and 190 kg ha-1 at 30 and 45 kg ha-1 doses in Ranchi and Dumka, respectively.  S application progressively increased the sulphur uptake by groundnut at both the locations.  Residual effect of S was evident up to 45 kg ha-1 level in producing the highest grain yield of the succeeding wheat crop at Ranchi and mustard crop at Dumka.  Residual effect of S was more pronounced at higher level of S than that a lower levels.  The residual value of 45 kg ha-1 level produced wheat and mustard grain yields response of 430 and 270 kg ha-1 respectively.  On account of residual soil sulphur availability in soil, sulphur uptake by crops grown in sequence increased progressively.  Apparent S recovery from added S (15 to 45 kg ha-1) ranged from 13.5 to 26.5 per cent in the first crop of groundnut and from 11.3 to 18.4 per cent in second crops of wheat and mustard.


Sulphur in Balanced Fertilisation in Alluvial Soils of North Bihar,  R. Sakal et.al. (RAU, Dept.Soil Sci., Faculty of Agric., Pusa 848 125, Samastipur, Bihar) Proceedings of the TSI/FAI/IFA Workshop on Sulphur in Balanced Fertilisation held on February 7-8, 2000 at New Delhi, p.73-84, New Delhi, FAI, 2000 


Available S in three great soil groups of North Bihar is evaluated using 0.15 per cent CaCl2 solution as extractant.  Sulphur deficiency to a higher magnitude is recorded in Haplaquents followed by Ustifluvents and Calciorthents.  Maximum yield response is recorded at 45 kg S ha-1 level in most of the crops.  Agronomic efficiency of applied S in most of the crops.  Agronomic efficiency of applied S in most of the crops is maximum at 30 kg S ha-1 dose but in mustard it is at 20 kg S ha-1 level.  Wheat and rice straws removed about four and two times more S than their corresponding grains, respectively.  Recovery of S by crops is more from directly applied source than from residual form.  Maximum VCR value was recorded at 30 kg S ha-1 dose in most of the crops.  The VCR values magnified when residual responses of S on succeeding crop were taken into account.  Application of 45 kg S ha-1 left substantial amount of residual S in soil for succeeding crop.  It is advisable to apply 45 kg S ha-1 at  one crop interval for sustaining the crop productivity.


Sulphur in Balanced Fertilisation in Black Soils of Parbhani and Latur Districts of Maharashtra, G.U. Malewar et.al. (Marathwada Agric.Univ., Dept.Agric.Chem. & Soil Sci., Parbhani 431 402)  Proceedings of the TSI/FAI/IFA Workshop on Sulphur in Balanced Fertilisation held on February 7-8, 2000 at New Delhi, p.87-94, New Delhi, FAI, 2000 


In order to delineate area of sulphur deficiency particularly in oilseed growing belt of Marathwada region of Maharashtra and responses of added sulphur to oilseed dominated cropping system, two projects on sulphur in balanced fertilisation under sunflower-summer groundnut and soybean-safflower systems were implemented at Parbhani and Latur districts, respectively, under TSI/FAI/IFA programmed for two years (1997-98 and 1998-99).  The results of field experiments conducted at farmers fields in sunflower-summer groundnut and soybean-safflower system at Esad (Parbhani) and Sarola (Latur) revealed that direct application of 45 kg S to sunflower and soybean gave significantly higher yields over control and lower sulphur doses.  Residual effect of sulphur on summer groundnut and safflower was significant at 45 kg S ha-1 in increasing pod/haulm yield of groundnut and grain/straw yield of safflower.  The available sulphur status of plot receiving no sulphur decreased slightly.  The added sulphur during first and second year showed relative build up after its utilization by the cropping system.  The sulphur uptake patterns in both the cropping system increased significantly with increasing levels of sulphur indicating highest uptake by crops receiving 45 kg S ha-1 directly and residually.  By and large increasing evidences of sulphur deficiency in oilseed growing soils stressed the need of application of sulphur for quality farm produce and maximum production in balanced fertilisation.


Sulphur in Balanced Fertilisation in Black Soils of Ahmednagar District of Maharashtra, P.B. Shinde (Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dept.Agric.Chem. and Soil Sci., Rahuri 413 722)  Proceedings of the TSI/FAI/IFA Workshop on Sulphur in Balanced Fertilisation held on February 7-8, 2000 at New Delhi, p.95-102, New Delhi, FAI, 2000 


Sulphur is an essential plant nutrient which must be supplied to meet the plant demand.  Sulphur deficiency is widespread and is becoming an important constraint for sustainable development of agriculture.  In order to delineate sulphur deficient areas, two tehsils namely, Sangammer and Rahuri of Ahmednagar district of  Maharashtra were selected.  It was observed that 34.69 per cent and 16 per cent soils were deficient in available sulphur, respectively.  Coarse textured soils were found deficient in available sulphur content.  The field experiments were carried out on farmer’s field for two years on soybean-wheat cropping system.   The field experiments were carried out on farmer’s field for two years on soybean-wheat cropping system.  It was observed that grain and straw yield of soybean were  significantly increased by application of sulphur at the rate of 15 and 30 kg S/ha along with recommended fertilisers over no sulphur application.  It was observed that soybean grain yield increased from 1838 to 2289 and to 2288 kg/ha, respectively in the first year while it increased from 2072 to 2240 and 2215 kg/ha, respectively in the second year.  There was no significant difference in grain yield of soybean at 30 and 45 kg S/ha in both the years.  The straw yield of soybean were also significantly increased in both the years, indicating soybean grain and straw yield could be optimized by applying 30 kg S/ha.  The available sulphur content of soil after harvest of soybean was found to be increased.


  Sulphur in Balanced Fertilisation in Red Soils of Southern Telengana Region of Andhra Pradesh, A. Raju Sreenivasa & V. Sailaja (Acharya N.G. Ranga Agric.Univ., Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500 030) Proceedings of the TSI/FAI/IFA Workshop on Sulphur in Balanced Fertilisation held on February 7-8, 2000 at New Delhi, p.111-117, New Delhi, FAI, 2000  


Soil survey for delineation of sulphur deficient areas is carried out in Ranga Reddy, Karimnagar, Nalgonda and Medak districts of Andhra Pradesh.  More than half of the soils excepting that of Ranga Reddy district were deficient in sulphur.  The results of field experiments carried out with two rice based cropping systems for two years during 1997-1999 showed significant increase in yield of rice due to application of sulphur at both the locations.  Based on grain yield response of rice 30 kg S/ha was found to be the optimum dose.  The residual effect of sulphur on greengram at Annajiguda and bhendi at Bandlaguda was significant up to 45 kg S/ha.  The available sulphur in soil was lower after bhendi than after greengram indicating that the former was more exhaustive than greengram in depleting the sulphur status of soil.


Sulphur in Balanced Fertilisation in Red Soils of Tirupati in Andhra Pradesh, K.Srinivasa Reddy & M. Raqueeba (S.V. Agricultural College,Dept.Soil Sci. and Agric.Chem., Andhra Pradesh) Proceedings of the TSI/FAI/IFA Workshop on Sulphur in Balanced Fertilisation held on February 7-8, 2000 at New Delhi, p.119-122, New Delhi, FAI, 2000 


With a view to delineate the sulphur deficient areas, 250 soil samples were collected from Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh.  The study showed that 62 per cent samples ware low (deficient) and 38 per cent soils are medium in available sulphur. The deficiency of sulphur  is attributed to low organic matter and low pH of soil.  Investigations were also carried out to evaluate the direct and residual effect of sulphur fertilisation on groundnut sunflower cropping system.  The seed yield attributes and sulphur uptake were significantly influenced by sulphur upto 30 kg S/ha.  The residual effect of sulphur on succeeding sunflower is significant upto 45 kg S/ha.


Sulphur in Balanced Fertilisation in Red of Erode District of Tamil Nadu, P. Savithri et.al. (Tamilnadu Agric.Univ., Dept.Soil Sci.Agric.Chem., Coimbatore 641 003) Proceedings of the TSI/FAI/IFA Workshop on Sulphur in Balanced Fertilisation held on February 7-8, 2000 at New Delhi, p.125-132, New Delhi, FAI, 2000  


Balanced fertiliser use is an important component of sustainable and high crop production in red soils of Tamil Nadu.  Results of chemical analysis of 410 red soils collected from a cluster of eight village of Erode district of Tamil Nadu showed that 21 per cent samples are low and 29 per cent samples are medium in available sulphur.  Field trails are conducted in farmers fields during 1997-98 and 1998-99 to evaluate the response of rice cotton cropping system to sulphur fertilisation. The influence of sulphur on the yield of both rice (direct effect) and cotton (residual effect) is significant upto 30 kg S/ha.  Based on direct and residual effect of sulphur, agronomic efficiency, recovery of added sulphur and value cost ratio 30 kg S/ha is found to be the optimum dose for rice cotton cropping system.


Sulphur in Balanced Fertilisation in Red Soils of Dharwad District of Karnataka, H.M. Manjunathaiah et.al. (Univ.Agric.Sci.,Dept.Soil Sci.Agric.Chem., Dharwad, Karnataka) Proceedings of the TSI/FAI/IFA Workshop on Sulphur in Balanced Fertilisation held on February 7-8, 2000 at New Delhi, p.145-150, New Delhi, FAI, 2000   


Field experiments are conducted in soils  deficient in sulphur, with an objective to evaluate the usefulness of sulphur fertiliser to improve crop yields.  Prior to field experiments soil survey is done in a cluster of villages keeping Garag Village, Dharwad taluk as centre.  The soil samples are analysed for available sulphur status by extracting with 0.15 per cent CaCl2 and soils were classified into low (10 ppm), medium (10-20 ppm) and high (20 ppm).  The percentage of samples falling under low category was 16.9 per cent and it is 39.4 per cent for medium category and 43.7 per cent for high category.  In two of the sites where available sulphur is around 10 ppm field experiments were taken in the years 1997-98 and 1998-99.  Maize-Soybean and wheat-cabbage were the cropping systems evaluated for sulphur response. Addition of sulphur at 30 kg ha-1 increased the grain yields of maize and wheat significantly over 0 kg S ha-1 indicating the direct effect of sulphur on crop yields.  This is also evident by the higher uptake of sulphur by these crops.


Sulphur in Balanced Fertilisation in China, D.L. Messick & M.X. Fan ,  Proceedings of the TSI/FAI/IFA Workshop on Sulphur in Balanced Fertilisation held on February 7-8, 2000 at New Delhi, p.1-12, New Delhi, FAI, 2000


Sulphur deficiency in agriculture is a global phenomenon.  China is not an exception.  Deficiency of sulphur is widespread in Chinese agriculture and is becoming one of the major constraints in the sustainable agricultural development of the country.  It is estimated that about 30 per cent of soils in China, equivalent to about 30 million hectares of land, are sulphur deficient.  The main reasons have been attributed to intensive agriculture and use of high analysis sulphur free fertilisers.  With a population of 1.3 billion and 467 million tonnes of foodgrain production,  China is one of the largest agriculture based countries in the world. To increase the food productivity to feed the growing population, use of sulphur in balanced fertilisation is the need of the hour.  The paper discusses the various aspects on sulphur in balanced fertiliser use in China and its significance to Indian agriculture.


Significant Achievements of TSI/FAI/IFA Sponsored Collaborative Project on Sulphur in Balanced Fertilisation, M.C. Sarkar (FAI, 10, Shaheed Jit Singh Marg, New Delhi) Proceedings of the TSI/FAI/IFA Workshop on Sulphur in Balanced Fertilisation held on February 7-8, 2000 at New Delhi, p.13-23, New Delhi, FAI, 2000  


The role of sulphur as the fourth major nutrient after N, P and K is now widely appreciated by those concerned in maintaining the soil fertility.  Although there are evidences of growing sulphur deficiency in many places of India, the specific data based on systematic sampling and survey on available sulphur status of soils are inadequate.  Most of the information available on crop response to sulphur application was based on field trials conducted in research farms.  Keeping this in mind, TSI/FAI/IFA project was launched in May 1997 in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.  The main objectives of this project were to determine the available sulphur status of soils for delineating the sulphur deficient areas and to evaluate the responses of major crops and cropping systems to fertiliser sulphur over recommended doses of NPK.  This project was carried out by the scientists belonging to the ICAR institutes and the state agricultural universities during 1997-99.  The paper highlights the major findings.


Sulphur in Balanced Fertilisation in Alluvial Soils of Western Uttar Pradesh, R.L. Yadav et.al. (Project Directorate for Cropping Systems Res., Modipuram, Meerut 250 110) Proceedings of the TSI/FAI/IFA Workshop on Sulphur in Balanced Fertilisation held on February 7-8, 2000 at New Delhi, p.27-41, New Delhi, FAI, 2000 


Studies were carried out during 1997-98 and 1998-99 to determine available sulphur (S) content and extent of S deficiency in the soils, and to understand the response to S fertilisation in rice-wheat system in Meerut and Jyotiba Phule Nagar (J.P. Nagar) districts of western Uttar pradesh, falling in the Upper Gangetic Plain (UGP) region.  Analysis of total 1037 soils samples (0-15 cm depth) collected from Daurala and Hastinapur agricultural development blocks (ADBs) of district Meerut, and Gajaraula and Hasanpur ADBs of district J.P. Nagar revealed wide variations in available S content of the soils as also in the incidence of S deficiency.  The magnitude of S deficiency was, on average, largest in the soils of Hasanpur (36 per cent), followed by Gajaraula (31 per cent), Daurala (26 per cent) and Hastinapur (19 per cent).  On-farm experiments conducted on S-deficient soils for two rice-wheat annual crop cycles indicated that S applied at 30 or 45 kg/ha increased rice yields significantly. Residual effect was registered on the yield of succeeding wheat, whereas S application at 15 kg/ha did not produce residual effect.  Recovery of fertiliser S in the crops and economic returns were greater in the soils having relatively low S content and vice versa.  The value cost ratios (VCRFs) in rice as well as rice-wheat system suggested that S application generated substantial profit in the S-deficient soils.


Sulphur in Balanced Fertilisation in Red and Black Soils of Bundelkhand Region of Uttar Pradesh, S.B. Tripathi & C.R. Hazra  (Indian Grassland and Fodder Res.Inst., Crop Production Div., Jhansi 284 003) Proceedings of the TSI/FAI/IFA Workshop on Sulphur in Balanced Fertilisation held on February 7-8, 2000 at New Delhi, p.43-54, New Delhi, FAI, 2000


The field experiments were conducted with four levels of sulphur (0,15,30 & 45 kg S/ha) in two type of soils namely coarse alfisol and fine vertisol on groundnut and fodder sorghum for the direct effect and wheat for the residual effect.  The result showed that the increasing levels of S from 15-45 kg/ha over control increased yield of groundnut (Pod + haulm) by 8-24 per cent in alfisol and 4-18 per cent in vertisol; whereas, increase in yields of fodder sorghum was 6-18 per cent in alfisol and 5-10 per cent in vertisol.  Significantly, higher yield was obtained at S level of 30 kg/ha with responses of 26.7 and 21.2 kg/kg of S for groundnut and 35.9 and 25.9  kg/ha for dry fodder sorghum in alfisols and vertisols, respectively.  S uptake by groundnut & sorghum crop improved with S fertilisation upto 45 kg/ha and highest value was recorded with fodder sorghum (62 per cent) in alfisols.  S recovery both in groundnut (9.5 per cent) and fodder sorghum (9.0 per cent) was maximum at 30 kg S/ha under alfisol, as compared to the recovery figures of 8.1 per cent in groundnut and 7.5 per cent in fodder sorghum in case of vertisols.  Crop quality in terms of increasing content of protein & oil in karnel for groundnut crop improved with increased S level of 45 kg S/ha over control.  Residual effect of S on yield of wheat (grain + straw) was higher at S level of 45 kg/ha over control with highest yield responses of wheat of 14.8 kg/kg S after fodder sorghum and 16.60 kg/kg S after groundnut.  Results of residual effect of S on S uptake by wheat crop also followed the similar trend.


Sulphur in Balanced Fertilisation in Alluvial Soils of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, D.S. Yadav et.al. (N.D. Univ.Agric. & Tech., Dept.Agron., Kumarganj, Faizabad 224 229) Proceedings of the TSI/FAI/IFA Workshop on Sulphur in Balanced Fertilisation held on February 7-8, 2000 at New Delhi, p.55-63, New Delhi, FAI, 2000   


Under TSI/FAI/IFA sponsored project, survey for delineation of sulphur deficient soils and field experiments on cultivators fields to study the response to sulphur fertilisation in rice-mustard and rice-wheat cropping systems were undertaken at Faizabad and Gorakhpur districts of eastern Uttar Pradesh during 1997-98 and 1998-99.  Analysed data revealed that about 65 per cent soil samples are deficient in available sulphur (10 ppm).  Results of the experiments showed that sulphur application to rice enhanced the grain yield, sulphur use efficiency and S-Upake appreciably.  The residual effect of sulphur on succeeding crops of mustard and wheat was found positive up to 30 and 45 kg S/ha, respectively.  Sulphur fertilisation appreciably raised the available sulphur content of soil in two years.  The application of 30 kg S/ha to rice crop was found profitable for both the rice-wheat and rice-mustard cropping systems in terms of returns and soil fertility.


Balanced Fertiliser for Higher Crop Productivity, JDS Panwar & Ompal Singh, Indian Farming, 50(2) 21,26-28 (2000)


For growing the healthy plant there is need to provide the balanced nutrients to the plant.  For which an integrated nutrient management is an essential part.  The soils play an important role in growing the plant successfully.  The soils are the reservoir for the different nutrients.  The plants require a number of nutrients to grow.  The paper describes the functions of the different nutrients, Visual symptoms of plant deficiencies on leaves and the  various ways to apply balanced fertilisers.



Fertiliser Industry in Promotion of Balanced Fertilisation, B.P. Govil & S.V. Kaore (IFFCO, 53-54 Govardhan, Nehru Place, New Delhi 110,019) Fert.News 44(2) 53-60, 63-68 (1999) 


Fertiliser industry has played a pivotal role in agricultural development in the country through efficient production and promotion of fertiliser among farmers. The industry has supported Government programmes on educating farmers on balanced and efficient use of fertilisers.  The efforts made by the fertiliser industry along with other input suppliers in association with Government efforts have resulted in self reliance on the food front.  The challenges during the next millennium, however, would be difficult to face keeping in view the rising population pressure.  List of promotional programmes being organised by the industry is exhaustive, each programme, however, has its own importance.  The paper highlights efforts made by the industry and the approach adopted in achieving the objectives prior to eighties and later.  The industry has conducted several thousand crop demonstrations and trials on farmers fields and brought out the beneficial effect of balanced fertilisation on crop yields.  Results have been described in brief.  Also, industry conducted a number of trials viz. on urea super granules, biofertilisers, secondary and macro nutrients, nutrient application based on soil test, sulphur nutrition, maximum yield research and integrated plant nutrition system.  Information generated if properly used will result in increased crop productivity and sustainability of crop production.


Countering the Yield Ceiling : A Key Ingredient in Balanced Nutrition,   Asia Fab No.21  36-38 (1998) 


Throughout developing Asia micronutrients are gaining increased acceptance as a key ingredient in balanced fertilisation programmes.  All crops respond well to increased applications of the primary N, P and K nutrients, but in certain cases, the response may be multed if there is a shortfall in the availability of micronutrients.  This article reviews the ways and means to significantly enhance the crop yields and quality.


Balanced Fertilisation in Improving Productivity of North Eastern Region, U.C. Sharma (ICAR Res.Complex for N.E.H. Region, Barapani 793 103) Fert.News 42(4) 71-77 (1997) 


Inspite of its having relatively more share in the country with regard to natural resources of land (7.75 per cent), forests (15.29 per cent) and water (11.00 per cent of total precipitation of the country), the North Eastern Region contributes only 2.98 per cent to Net national Domestic Product. The economy of the region is mainly dependent on agriculture which, despite concerted efforts has remained subsistence in nature. Prevalence of shifting cultivation, unique land tenure system, flood hazards, free range grazing, lack of finance, proper communication system, sutiable farming systems, low use of nutrients and marketing facilities are some of the major constraints hindering the process of the region. Overall Fertiliser Nutrient Response Potential achieved in the region is only 16.4 per cent indicating a great scope for increasing agricultural productivity with judicious, adequate and balanced use of fertiliser nutrients. With proper use of inputs and improved managerial skills, the productivity of foodgrains can be enhanced tremendously. The paper deals with the nutrient status and supply pattern of the region. Balanced use of nutrients in the region, various constraints in foodgrains productivity and their remedial measures have been also dealt with.


Role of Balanced Fertilisation in Rice-Wheat Cropping System, Raj Kumar Rattan & Anil Kumar Singh (IARI, New Delhi 110 012) Fert.News  42(4) 79-97 (1997) 


Rice-wheat cropping system practised in 9.5 million hectares area contributed to an estimated 21.86 per cent of the total 191.09 million tonnes of food grain production from 143 million hectares net cultivated area during 1994-95. However, concerns have been expressed that adoption of this highly intensive system has fatigued the soils in terms of declining crop and factor productivity. Imbalanced fertiliser use has been one of the key factors. Even the application of recommended NPK fertilisers devoid of organics has not been able to sustain its productivity. Review has been made on the role of balanced fertilization integrated nutrient management on the sustainability of the rice-wheat system. The role of environmental factors on the sustainability of the system has also been briefly discussed.


Role of Balanced  Fertilisation in Oilseed Based Cropping Systems,  M.S. Aulakh & N.S. Pasricha (PAU, Dept. Soils, Ludhiana 141 004)  Fert.News 42(4) 101-111 (1997)   


Most of the  fertiliser-use research on oilseed crops in India has been on the monitoring of crop response and benefits of individual fertiliser nutrients. A few studies on oilseeds based cropping systems illustrate the long-term effects of P,S and Zn application on their performance in sequence. Groundnut (in summer) and rapeseed-mustard (in winter) had been the major oilseeds of the country until 1990-91 when the adoption of improved varieties of soybean and hybrids of sunflower made their presence felt and the almost static production of oilseeds 3 decades ago showed a dramatic upward trend. Leguminous oilseeds, groundnut and soybean need only a small starter dose of 15-30 kg N/ha and rhizobium inoculation is quite effective where these crops are introduced for the first time. The response to fertiliser P varies from 20-40 kg P2O5/ha for groundnut and 40-80 kg P2O5/ha for soybean. Groundnut can thrive well on the residual P left from preceding adequately P-fertilized wheat Rapeseed-mustard crops require around 100 kg N and 30-60 kg P2O5/ha depending upon the soil fertility and available soil moisture status. Sunflower, safflower and linseed require 30-80 kg N and 30-90 kg P2O5/ha. Sporadic response of different oilseeds to K have been reported. In general, in K-deficient soils, 20 to 60 kg K2O/ha has been found optimum.  Reports on S deficiency in soils and response of oilseeds to fertiliser S (20-60 kg S/ha) are quite frequent. Among micronutrients, some studies have reported response to Zn, Fe, Mn and B by groundnut and soybean, Zn and B by rapeseed-mustard, Fe and B by sunflower.


Balanced Fertilisation for Sustainable Productivity of Tea, D.P.  Verma (UPASI Tea Res.Inst., Nirar Dam BPO, Valparai 642 127)  Fert.News 42(4) 113-125 (1997) 


Plant nutrient supply in tea is aimed to suppress the reproductive phase and to exploit the vegetative growth during growing seasons and to make available all the essential nutrients deficient in the soil at optimum quantities as demanded by tea bushes for a set productivity level. The plant nutrient supply strategies have been rationalised over the years in different tea growing countries and summarised in this article. Balanced fertilisation for sustainable productivity of tea involves comprehensive approach to N,P,K Mg, S and Zn with regard to rate source method and time of application along with the husbandry practices for conservation of soil, buildup of organic matter status and maintenance of optimum soil pH by liming. It is vital to integrate the climate, soil, plant and cultural factors for getting the maximum return on the investment on fertilisers and for the maintenance of bush health and productivity of soil. This will ensure maximum financial benefit to the planter and minimum losses to the environment for the maintenance of ecological balance and sustainable productivity of tea. The present understanding on Balanced Fertilisation has been summarised in this article for sustainable productivity of tea.


Concept of Balanced Fertilisation Its Relevance and Practical Limitations, N.N. Goswami (IARI, New Delhi) Fert.News 42(4) 15-19 (1997)   


Balanced fertilisation has been defined and a conceptual framework proposed. The major objectives of balanced fertilisation are to ensure sustained agricultural productivity and efficiency in fertiliser use without impairment of soil productivity and adverse effect on the environment. the validity and relevance of balanced fertilisation advocated in the prescription of some ideal ratio of N:P2O5:K2O consumption as fertilisers are discussed. Balanced fertiliser use of balanced fertilisation should be based on soil and crop needs. The usefulness of soil tests and limitation in putting balanced fertilisation into practice are also discussed.


Soil Fertility Evaluation for Balanced Fertilisation, G. Dev (Potash & Phosphate Inst. of Canada - India Programme, Gurgaon, Haryana)  Fert.News 42(4) 23-34 (1997)   


Different techniques  used for evaluating soil fertility and approaches for recommending balanced fertiliser use based on soil tests are described. The approach of general fertiliser recommendations related to soil test ratings is in common use though it has its shortcomings. Because of the changing trend in agriculture, yield target concept and fertiliser recommendations for maximum profits per hectare (or economic base) are more promising. Yield target concept has the added advantage that targets can be varied by taking into consideration the resources available. In case of increased cost or lesser availability of fertilisers, relatively lower yield targets can be fixed and plant nutrients applied resulting in higher returns and maintenance of soil fertility. However, the target equations need to be thoroughly tested and varified before being put to use for farm advisory service.  The recommendations must necessarily point out to the likely loss in yield and profit under the conditions of deviation from use of fertilisers in balanced proportion.


Sulphur in Balanced Fertilisation in Northern India, K.N. Tiwari  (C.S. Azad Univ. Agric. & Tech., Dept. SSAC, Kanpur 208 002) Paper Presented at TSI/FAI/IFA Symposium on Sulphur in Balanced Fertilisation, New Delhi, Feb 13 - 14, 1997 pp.15, New Delhi, FAI, 1997 


Sulphur deficiency in northern region is quite widespread and the benefits accruing through added sulphur are attractive and at par to those for NPK.  The paper discusses the subjects related to sulphur addition through NPK fertilisers.  Sulphur in soils and areas of sulphur deficiency, the various soil test methods for available sulphur, plant analysis indices, effect of sulphur on crop yields, sulphur management in cropping systems, Interaction of sulphur with other nutrients, comparative evaluation of sulphur fertilisers, effect of sulphur application on crop quality and research gaps and suggestions for future research are also mentioned.


Sulphur  in Balanced Fertilisation in Eastern India, R. Sakal & A.P.  Singh (RAU, Dept.Soil Sci, Pusa, Samastipur 848 125) Paper Presented at TSI/FAI/IFA Symposium on Sulphur in Balanced Fertilisation, New Delhi, Feb 13 - 14, 1997 pp.6, New Delhi, FAI, 1997


Available S content and magnitude of its deficiency in some soils of eastern states of India has been presented.  Response of crops to S application and the relative efficiency of S sources with their direct and residual effect of S on crops have been dealt with.  Data for crop quality as affected by S has also been given.  Area of future research has been discussed.


Sulphur in Balanced Fertilisation in Southern India, A. Sreenivasa Raju (Acharya N.G. Ranga Agric. Univ., Dept. SSAC, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500 030) Paper Presented at TSI/FAI/IFA Symposium on Sulphur in Balanced Fertilisation, New Delhi, Feb13 - 14, 1997 pp.16, New Delhi, FAI, 1997   


Studies on soil sulphur status and crop responses to balanced fertiliser use with sulphur are increasingly being carried out in recent years in the Southern states of the country.  When the light textured soils in AP are, in general showing available S contents, in other states, these soils are having relatively more available sulphur, among several methods used for extracting available S, 0.15 CaCl2 is found better suited to others.  The available S contents showed positive correlations with finer fraction, total N and organic carbon contents of the soils.  Crop response to applied sulphur showed wide variation in respect of yields and sulphur uptake parameters.  In soils of A.P, the crops responded to S application including groundnut, sunflower, castor, sesamum, safflower, pulse crops, rice and bhendi.  While groundnut showed responses to S applied as gypsum, several crops were benefitted by S application through ammonium sulphate.  However residual effects were better with former than the later source.  In Tamil Nadu too, several of these crops including sugarcane, cotton, onion, tomato, soybean and tapioca showed responses to sulphur applied through ammonium sulphate, gypsum and ammonium phosphate sulphate.  In Karnataka crops showed responses to applied S including sunflower, groundnut, sesamum, safflower, rice and potato while cassava seems to respond to applied sulphur in soils of Kerala.  Due to S application ranging from 20 to 60 Kg S/ha, not only the yields but also quality parameters of all these crops were improved.  A few studies were carried out on cropping systems. 


Sulphur in Balanced Fertilisation in Western India, G.U. Malewar &  Syed Ismail, Paper Presented at TSI/FAI/IFA Symposium on Sulphur in Balanced Fertilisation, New Delhi, Feb 13 - 14, 1997 pp. 20, New Delhi, FAI, 1997 


In this paper, research on soil sulphur, its distribution, availability, transformation, different forms, critical concentration in soils and crops, extent of S deficiency and responses of graded doses and source of sulphur and interactions of nutrients with S in plant and soils of western Indian states indicating deficiency to the extent of 41 .  The proportion of different forms of S differed widely with the major soil groups and agroclimatic regions of western India.  Most of the soil profiles either showed no definite pattern of their distribution with the depth or available sulphur and other forms increased with the depth.  Positive and significant relationship with parent material, organic content, clay content and pH was observed, however calcium carbonate either indicated negative relationship with S forms or no specific relationship was established.  The critical S concentrations in soils, and crops varied in the range of 7.4 to 20 mg/kg soil and 0.13 to 0.87 per cent, respectively which mainly influenced by soil characteristics and  plant type, agroclimatic situations, nature of crop, sources of sulphur etc.  Interaction of nutrients with sulphur are considered to be important due to deficiencies of not only sulphur but other nutrients too.  Thus, newer and practical approach of integrated and balanced sulphur fertilisation would be more realistic for solving nutritional complexes on sustainable basis.


Balanced Fertilisation and Food Security in China, Zhihong Cao(Inst. Soil Sci., Academia Sinic, Nanjing, China) Fertiliser News  42(3)51,53,55,57 (1997) 


China has a history of thousands of years in agriculture and has gained much experience.  However, by the year 2000, China should be confronted with an arduous task for her agriculture to feed about 12.94 hundred millions people from only 7 per cent of the world’s arable land.  Food production remains a serious problem.  Topics dealing with soil fertility and fertilisation in relation to grain yields in China are presented in the paper.


Balanced Fertilisation and Sustainable Agriculture in the Wake of Recent Policy Changes, Rajendra Prasad & J F Power (IARI, New Delhi) Paper presented at The FAI Seminar”Challenges of Liberalisation in the Fertiliser and Agriculture Sectors”, New Delhi, Dec.8-10, 1994, New Delhi, FAI 1994 pp.12 


High yielding varieties of crops need considerable amounts of N,P and K and for sustained productivity balanced fertilisation is a must. Achievement of foodgrain production goal of 240 million tonnes/annum by 2000 AD cannot be conceived unless adequate P and K is applied along with nitrogen. The experience in the past shows that not only N, P.K but some other nutrients e.g. zinc and sulphur have become deficient in many soils. As we march towards 21st century and with increased food production, deficiency of other macro and micronutrients is likely to show up. There is a need to establish soil-plant health care centres for proper diagnosis of nutrient deficiencies. We also need to explore the possibilities of increasing efficiency of applied P and K in view of their increased prices.


Principles of Balanced Fertilisation, H.R. Uexkull & E. Mutert (PPI, Singapore) Proc. “Regional FADINAP Seminar on Fertilisation and the Environment, Chiang  Mai, Thailand, Sept. 7-11, 1992. (ST/ESCAP/1256), pp.17-36, N.Y., United Nations, 1993   


The term  “Balanced Fertilisation” is introduced and defined. Following a historical review, the development of fertilisation in Asia is compared with other regions. Natural nutrient pools in the ecosystem are described and soil, water and atmosphere are introduced as principal suppliers. Organic and inorganic fertilisers are analysed with regard to their function and role in traditional and modern agriculture with special reference to Asia. In principle, balanced fertilisation (regardless of the fertiliser source) is indispensable to avoid crop yield  decline on cultivated land and to supplement nutrient loss from the soil ecosystem. Modern intensified agriculture depends on fertiliser inputs. Balanced fertilisation ensures high productivity in accordance with nutrient demand by individual crops and for individual nutrient elements without causing harm to the environment.




Response to Biofertiliser, B.C. Biswas   et.al. (FAI, 10 Shaheed Jit Singh Marg, New Delhi 110 067) Fert.News 46(2) 15-18,21-24 (2001)  


Farmers knew legumes’ effect for ages.  Inclusion of legumes in cropping system was, therefore, a common practice rather than an exception, but the reason of soil fertility improvement due to inclusion of legume was unknown.  After discovery of Rhizobium in

1886,  it was revealed that it was the Rhizobium which lived in the root of legume fixed N from the atmosphere.  Since then addition of Rhizobium from external source came into practice to increase the native population to enhance the quantum of biological nitrogen fixation.  Subsequently, other groups of N-fixers and phosphate solubilisers were discovered,  and inoculation of these microorganisms also came in vogue.  This paper highlights the status of crop responses to the use of these microorganisms that are popularly known as biofertilisers in India. 


Mycorrhiza: Vital for Sustainable Farming, Agriculture Today 4(9) 44-46 (2001)


Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM) occurence in the nature is more of a rule than an exception and has symbiotic relationship across the cultivated plants-agricultural, horticultural and forest species.  It is fast acquiring popularity as a bio fertiliser.  The fungi grow from the cortex of the host plant root and send thread -like hyphae out into the soil, which facilitate the roots in the uptake of mineral nutrients.  The paper presents the way to inoculate the fungi and use them in the integrated nutrition management.


Use of Phosphate Biofertilizers for Crop Production System, M.C. Manna, K.G. Mandal, K.M. Hati and Subodh Kundu, Indian Farming 50(10) 52-55 (2001)


Phosphate biofertilisers are an important source of augmenting nutrient supplies for crop production systems.  In this article, quality of nutritionally enriched phosphocompost prepared from different crop residues and city garbage has been analyzed and their field performance studied, compared with chemical fertilisers.  Yield gains and uptake of P on soybean showed that the application of enriched phosphocompost @ 5 tonnes/ha was comparable with single superphosphate when used @ 60 Kg P2O5/ha.  Direct application of  P-solubilizers into translated seedlings does not give promising effect for higher crop productivity.  This is mainly due to interaction of many inherent micro - organisms under field conditions and low content of energy sources present in the soil.  To overcome such difficulties, organic enrichment compost by utilizing crop residues, city garbage with bioinoculum is one of the viable alternatives to improve land productivity and biological system of the soil.


Biofertilisers for Enhancing Crop Productivity and Environmental Security, JDS Panwar, SP Saikia & VSGR Naidu, Indian Farming 50(10) 56-60 (2001)


The dawn of the new millenium poses tough challenges to the farming community.  Producing more food to feed the burgeoning population from shrinking land and less water, without eroding ecological foundation, will be an uphill task.  The surest means to tide over this challenge is through environmentally sustainable farming methods, which are economically rewarding and intellectually stimulating.  A strategy for integrated nutrient supply is evolved by using a judicious combination of chemical fertilisers, organic manures and biofertilisers.


Effect of Biofertilisers and Nitrogen on Yield and Nutrient Uptake in Rice, B.R. Gupta  et.al. (CSA Univ.Agric.and Tech., Dept.Soil Sci.Agric.Chem., Kanpur 208 002) Ann.Pl.Soil Res. 2(2) 169-174 (2000) 


In the present investigation, the utility of biofertilizer viz, blue green algae, Azotobacter and Azospirillum was studied in relation to yield, yield attributing characters and nutrients uptake in rice crop.  Biofertilizers with or without chemical nitrogen responded positively in relation to yield and nutrient uptake by the crop.  Blue green algae co-inoculated with other two diazotrophs proved superior to any single inoculation and showed the economy of 30 kg N ha-1.  The increase in seed yield due to mixed inoculant was 15.0 per cent, while it was 10.5 per cent with BGA, 4.0 per cent with Azotobacter and 7.4 per cent with Azosprillum as single inoculation.  Maximum yield, nutrient uptake, seed protein content and protein yield was harvested by the treatment of 90 kg N ha-1 + mixed inoculants of BGA and Azotobacter + Azospirillum- Biofertilizers appeared to be the cheap input showing net profit of Rs. 564 to Rs. 2006 ha-1 as against the input cost ranging from Rs. 10 to Rs. 70.


Significant Research and Development with Reference to  Biofertilisers in Chhattisgarh, S.B. Gupta   et.al. (IGKV, Raipur 492 012)  Fert.News 45(11) 35-40 (2000)  


Chhattisgarh region is generally known as a monocropped rainfed  rice zone, situated at eastern part of Madhya Pradesh.  It is exposed to extreme dry and hot climate during summer.  As identified by the soil sample analysis of this region, the maximum viable VAM spores were found to be 28 per 100 gm soil.  Similarly, among some of the other parameters,  the maximum estimates of viable PSB cells were 4000 per gram soil, root colonisation of rice nursery due to native VAM was 10.6 per cent and the nodulation in different legumes due to native Rhizobium was in 32.46 per cent area.  The low population density of above mentioned mesophilic heterotrophs are mainly due to high air temperature up to 48 per cent C, soil surface temperature above 60 per cent C and low humidity up to 3-4 per cent for a prolonged period of summer season resulting into the loss of organic matter and population of beneficial microbes.  The other reasons have been identified as the low vegetation in spite of high rainfall, low rain-water retention capacity of soils due to sloppy and shallowness of soils including the practice of leaving fallow land due to lack of irrigation and social problem of cattle grazing in rabi and summer season. Therefore, there is an urgent need of research to find the effective and stress tolerant strains of crop beneficial microbes besides extension activities to increase awareness among farmers regarding use of biofertilisers, organic matter recycling, rain water conservation and controlled cattle grazing. 


Phosphorus Solubilising  Biofertilisers in the Whirlpool of Rock Phosphate - Challenges and Opportunities, P. Bhattacharyya & R.K.  Jain (Regional Biofertilisers Development Centre, N.S. Building, Civil Line, Nagpur) Fert.News 45(10) 45-49, 51-52 (2000)   


Phosphorus is essential plant nutrient but making it available to plant is critical because of very low solubility of phosphate.  The application of mineral P-fertiliser is also not much encouraging due to its rapid fixation into insoluble phosphorus compounds and its consumption in India is also not adequate. Large deposits of rock phosphate in India are still remained unused as a fertiliser for its low grade.  Based on these circumstances, emphasis has been given to use P-solubilising biofertilisers, which have been found useful in making phosphorus available to plants through solubilisation, converting low-grade rock phosphate as fertiliser and increasing yield of different crops.  The demand for this particular biofertiliser is increasing gradually and many biofertiliser units have started its production commercially.  The status of P-biofertilisers along with its mode of action, strain isolation and production technique, constraints with remedies has been presented in this paper.


Biofertilisers in Pulses, Kranti Kumar Singh & J.P. Mishra (Indian Inst. of Pulses Res., Kanpur 208 024) Fert.News 43(12) 91-94, 97-102 (1998)  


Pulses are the important source of protein.  These, therefore, constitute an essential component of balanced diet in India where the bulk of the population is vegetarian.  These are grown in about 24 million hectares, with a production of about 15 million tonnes in the country.  The present production level is quite low compared to the per capita demand.  In order to meet the food demand of the ever growing population, it is imperative to increase the production and productivity of these crops.  Biofertilisers, as a supplementary source of plant nutrients, can make a significant contribution in increasing the productivity of pulse crops.  Voluminous work have been done on the use of biofertilisers in pulse crops earlier.  In this paper, an attempt has been made to present the available information in a classified manner.  Future line of work has also been suggested.


Biofertilisers in Crop Production, G. R.Singh, K.S. Pandya,K.K. Choudhary and R. B. Sharma, Indian Farming 46(10) 34-36 (1997)


Microorganisms play an important role in various chemical transformations in soils and thus, influence the availability of major nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulphur to the plants.  A few micro-organisms such as nitrogen fixing bacteria and phosphate solubilisers can be utilized to partially augment the supply of major nutrients.  Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Azospirillum, Blue -green algae and phosphate solubilizing bacteria can be used as biofertilisers to increase the crop production.


Bio-Organic Fertilisers for Improving Productivity of Legumes in Vertisols Region of Madhya Pradesh, S.K. Dubey & R.K. Gupta (JNKVV, Rafi Ahmed Kidwai College Agric.) Fert.News 41(8) 33-39 (1996) 


The reduction in overall NPK fertilisers consumption due to decontrol of chemical fertilisers has widened the NPK ratio. The problem is so acute that it is beyond any single type of nutrient sources to accept the challenge of appropriate nutrient supply. There is a considerable scope for supplementing of renewable sources such as biofertilisers and organic waste for improving crop productivity and soil health. The use of FYM and compost is in practice but the use of biofertilisers and other wastes has yet to become popular as a cost effective and eco-friendly nutrient supply system. Experiments conducted on different legume crops grown under varying agro-ecological conditions proved the potentiality of biofertilisers and organic waste as important sources of plant nutrients. This paper consolidates and interprets the available information on response of

legumes grown on vertisols under rainfed conditions, to biofertilisers and organic manures. 


GFCL’s Promotional Activities, V.K. Raju  (Godavari Fert. Chem. Ltd., 50 Sebastian Road, Secunderabad 500 003) Fertiliser News 41(4) 79-80 (1996)  


The objective of the company is to promote the use of Godavari products-DAP, Pesticides and Biofertilisers.  The objective can not be achieved without educating farmers on balanced and efficient use of chemical fertilisers in combination with organic and biofertilisers.  Farmers must be educated about crop management and proper use of other agro inputs.  Socio economic, health and educational developments must also be brought to their notice for their overall development.  GFCL has been organising several programmes every year since its inception aiming at the overall development of the farmers.  Some of the important programmes are described in this article.  The present trend is changing fast as more and more educated young farmers are appearing on the scene. 


Biofertiliser : A Supplementary Source of Plant Nutrient, B.C. Marwaha  (Pradeep Phosphates Ltd., 90, Nehru Place, New Delhi 110 019 )  Fert.News 40(7) 39-50 (1995) 


Biofertilisers are apparently environment and farmers friendly renewable source of non-bulky low cost organic agro-input. While Rhizobium, Blue Green Algae (BGA) and Azolla are crop specific, bio-inoculants like Azotobacter, Azospirillum Phosphorus Solubilising Bacteria (PSB), Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza(VAM) etc. could be regarded as broad spectrum biofertilisers. This is mainly because of inadequate awareness both among the extension workers and farmers regarding their utility, their short shelf life, lack of ready availability in time and in desirable quality and inconsistency in results with their use. However, proper education of the extension workers, dealers and farmers about their significance and economic feasibility of their application both by seed treatment or to soil, could go a long way in promoting their adoption. These could effectively supplement the nutrient requirement of crops through chemical fertilisers, to meet the soaring demand for food, fibre and fuel.


Biofertilisers and Sustainable Agriculture, G. Rajamani, S.K. Khandelwal and M.M. Simlot, Yojana 39(4) 12-13 (1995)


Short Communication.


Beneficial Effect of Biofertilizers on Fertilizer Use Efficiency & Crop Production , S.B. Kute & B.J. Patel (G.S.F.C.Ltd.,Vadodara)  Indian Fertilizer Scene Annual  7,56-59 (1994) 


As non-renewable resources of energy are depleting at very high speed, an acute has been arised to develop low cost input, non polluting and highly effective technology in Agriculture for higher yield. GSFC being a chemical fertiliser manufacturing company, is the first to come forward with Biofertilisers with a view to contribute in developing system approach technology for plant nutrition. Basic research work has been carried out at GSFC, both at laboratory level as well as field level to isolate and develop most efficient bacterial strain. Experiments have been conducted at Research & Demonstration Farm, Government Seed farms and at farmers field also. After series of such experiments GSFC has succeeded in developing three types of nitrogen Biofertiliser viz. Azotobacter, Azospirillum and Rhizobium culture. GSFC has also developed Phosphate solubilizing bacterial strain. The best efficient strain found from the above experiments is selected for production. Strict quality control measures are being observed at each and every stage of commercial  production. Production is also planned as per the demand only so as to provide fresh material to the farmers in time. 


Biofertilisers: Prospects and Problems, Joseph Thomas (SPIC, Madras)  Fert. News 38(4) 63-65 (1993)   


Of late, increasing  emphasis is being given to the production and utilisation of high quality biofertilisers (BF) in India, because these are considered to be attractive  and cost effective source of plant nutrients. The paper deals with current scenario of production and use of BF. Major constraints, their remedial measures and future line of work have also been indicated.


Biofertiliser : A Vast Potential, T. Singh & P. Bhattacharya,  Yojana 37(23) 16-18 (1993)


Short communication.


 Fertiliser Equivalents of FYM, Green Manures and Biofertilisers,  H.L.S. Tandon (Fertiliser Development and Consultation Organisation, New Delhi) Fertiliser News 36(12) 61-67 (1991) 


This paper presents fertiliser equivalents of FYM, green manures and some biofertilisers in terms of their impact on crop yields. Since a whole range of IPNS (Integrated Plant Nutrient Supply) packages are needed to meet the needs of specific situations, bringing diverse sources of plant nutrients onto a common platform may help in assembling packages through which mineral, organic and biofertilisers can contribute towards meeting  the optimum nutrient needs of different farming systems. Quantitative estimates are provided based on data generated in India. In view of the assumptions and extrapolations involved, intensification of research in this sector is called for IPNS is one way of reducing depletion of soil nutrients as it seems to be beyond the capability of any single input to substantially narrow the gap between nutrient removals and additions in the coming years.


Studies on Comparative Performance of Different  Biofertilisers with Sub-optimal Levels of Nitrogen on Rice, S. Jeyaraman (Dept. of Agron., Agri. College and Res. Inst., Madurai, TN) Andhra Agri.J.  37(4) 366-369 (1990) 


Studies on the comparative efficiency of different biofertilisers viz. Azospirillum, Azolla and blue green algae with and without sub-optimal levels of N (0,50,75 kg/ha) and recommended level of N revealed that the application of 75 kg N/ha supplemented by Azosprillium at 1 kg/ha through seedling root dipping was found to be more efficient in influencing the grain yield. It showed a significant increase in kharif rice and the increased yield was statistically on par in rabi rice as compared to the application of recommended level of 100 kg N alone/ha. In both seasons, grain yield obtained from the application of 75 kg N/ha with soil replication of blue green algae at 10 kg/ha or dual cropping of Azolla at 1t/ha and the application of 50 kg N/ha supplemented by Azospirillum were also comparable with the grain yield recorded at 100 kg N alone/ha.




Fertigation : Need of Modern Agriculture, Satyendra Kumar, Ram Asrey & Rajbir Singh, Yojana 44(7) 31,32,37 (2000)


Fertigation enables users to put the fertilisers in plant root zone or on canopy in desired frequency, amount and concentration at appropriate time.


Fertigen to Boost Productivity, V.S. Balasubramanian, S.P. Palaniappan & S. Chelliah, Yojana 43(5) 27 (1999)


Fertigation trials conducted at Nagarjuna Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Andhra Pradesh, have shown that in paired row cotton the saving of water was to an extent of 55% and fertiliser to 25%.


Effect of Fertigation on Growth and Yield of Carnation Cultivars Grown under Polyhouse, B. Krishna   et.al. (UAS, Div.Horticulture, Bangalore 560 065) Mysore J. Agric.Sci. 33(1) 33-38 (1999) 


Fertigation levels had no significant effect on plant height up to 90 days after planting (DAP), bud length, bud diameter, flower diameter, stem length, number of flower per m2,flower yield and unmarketable flowers.  However, stem length and days taken for flower bud initiation differed significantly due to fertigation levels and these characters improved as the fertigation levels increased.  Cultivars differed significantly in the above said traits.  In interaction effect of fertigation and cultivars marked variations were in plant height after 105 DAP, bud length, flower diameter, stem length, days taken for flower bud initiation, number of flower per m2 and flower yield.  


Effect of Liquid Fertilizer through Drip Irrigation on Growth and Yield of Okra (Hibiscus esculentus), A.D. Tumbare   et.al. (Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Inter-Faculty Dept.Irrigation Water Management, Rahuri 413 722) Indian J.Agron. 44(1) 176-178 (1999) 


A field experiment was conducted during summer season of 1996 and 1997 to study the effect of fertigation of liquid fertilizer on growth and yield of summer okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) in sandy-clay loam soil.  The treatment consisted of 5 fertigation levels (125, 100, 75, 50 and 25 per cent of recommended dose) compared with recommended dose of solid fertilizer (band placement) with surface-irrigation method.  the drip-irrigation treatment proved superior to surface irrigation.  An application of 75 per cent recommended dose by liquid fertilizer through drip irrigation performed better, resulting in 25 per cent saving of fertilizer compared with conventional method of fertilizer application.  Similarly, 50 per cent of recommended dose of liquid fertilizer through drip irrigation was equally effective to produce yield that of conventional method of irrigation and fertilizer application.  The fertigation increased the water-use efficiency.


The Vital Link : Fertiliser K is Ideal for Fertigation , Fert.Intern. No.359 34-35 (1997) 


Dead sea works Ltd. (DSW) produces a white potash from carnallite precipitated in evaporation ponds.  Unlike coloured red potash, the DSW product contains no insoluble Fe impurities, which tend to dog drip systems.  The article outlines the ways by which this product has been developed to suit the special needs of fertigation. 


Maximum Yields from Scarce Resources : Leading the  World in Product Development,   Fert.Intern. No.359  34-35 (1997) 


Against all odds, Israel has built up a thriving agricultural system based on extremely limited water resources and unfavourable soil conditions.  The development of fertigation systems, whereby fertilizers and other inputs are applied at the same time as water, has proved the basis of this success.  This article explains the Israeli experience and approach to sound nutrient management. 


Fertigation : New Hope for Asia,   Asia Fab No.13, 20-21, 24-25 (1996)   


Better yields for produce and higher quality are just  two of the advantages offered by the adoption of fertigation, in conjunction with drip feed irrigation systems. It is an ideal way of bringing fertility to semi-arid regions, and will surely play a vital role in helping developing Asia to meet the food needs of a growing population. This paper gives a brief account of the work done in countries like Brazil, Australia, Middle East, India and Israel.


Fertigation : Minimizing Environmental Pollution by Fertilizers, J. Hagin & Anat Lowengart (Faculty of Agric.Engg., Technion-Israel Inst. Tech., Haifa 32000) Fert. Res. 43(1-3) 5-7 (1996) 


Intensification of agriculture by irrigation and enhanced use of fertilizers may generate pollution by increased levels of nutrients in underground and surface waters. Most the irrigation is by open systems having a relatively low efficiency of water application. A higher efficiency may be gained by pressurized irrigation systems. Drip irrigation generates a restricted root system requiring frequent nutrients supply that may be satisfied by applying fertilizers in irrigation water, i.e. by fertigation. Maximization of crop yield and quality and minimization of leaching below the rooting volume may be achieved by managing fertilizers concentrations in measured quantities of irrigation water, according to crop requirements.


Fertigation : An Overview of Some Practical Aspects, H. Magen (Dead Sea Works, POB 75, Beer Sheva, 84100, Israel) Fert. News 40 (12) 97-100 (1995) 


Fertigation is the application of fertiliser through irrigation water and it increases the use efficiency of both fertiliser and irrigation water. This paper deals with the history of fertigation, fertiliser suited to it and some important agronomic aspects of fertigation. 


Pre-Plant Slow-Release Fertilisation of  Strawberry Plants Before Fertigation, C. Cadahia   et al (Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain) Fert. Res. 34(3)  191-195 (1993) 


The advantages of pre-plant fertilisation were studied by using a slow-release fertiliser (nitrophoska permanent) with strawberry plants (Fragaria ananassa, cv Chandler) before fertigation. A sandy soil was used in the experiment in conditions of abundant rain. When the slow-release NPK was mixed with soil, the leachate analysis of a  glasshouse crop showed a lower loss of N and therefore a lower degree of ground water contamination compared with the traditional NPK fertiliser. However, when the fertiliser in question was placed at 10  cm from the surface, as in the case of ornamental plants, the results were less favourable. Consequently, the slow-release fertiliser mixed with the soil not only increases the N uptake by the plant as well as  the leaf and root weight, but it also produces higher yields.




India Adopts Bt Cotton, E C Thomas, Yojana 46(6) 14-17 (2002)


Every technology has the potential to do both harm and good.  It is for the ultimate user to weigh the benefits against the potential for harm and then take a decision based on sound economics.


Biotechnology in Developing Countries : Perspectives, G Ravi Kumar, Ranjit Kumar and V B Patel, Yojana 46(6) 33-36 (2002)


Given the complexity of socio-economic, political and ecological problems behind deficits in food security, agricultural biotechnology can be panacea for all countries.  If used wisely in conjunction with conventional breeding, improved agricultural methods and better agricultural policies, it can become a powerful tool in the fight for higher productivity in the small farmer's field.


"Bt Cotton Will Not be News in any Other Country---", Agriculture Today 4(4) 16-18 (2002)


Agriculture in India has suffered from governmental intervention.  The restrictive trade policies of the government have adversely hampered the growth of Indian Agriculture.  Coupled with this were the restrictions on adoption of new technologies, which prevented the farmers from becoming globally competitive.  However, very few were aware of this problem and even fewer dared to question the governmental policies prior to the onset of economic reforms.  Mr.  Sharad  Joshi, an eminent economist and founder Shetkari Sanghatana was one such person who has been known for his radical viewson issues concerning agriculture.  He was also Chairman of the National Task Force on Agriculture.  One of the first advocates of the WTO and liberalized trade in agriculture, he had been in news recently because of his staunch support to the farmers right to adopt the tools of biotechnology.  When the government decided to permit mahyco to market the Bt cotton seed, it was an endorsement of his stand.  Vishal Rawat, Assistant Editor, spoke to him to find out his reaction over the decision and other issues related to Indian agriculture.


"Bt Cotton Will Improve the Net Returns to the Farmers....", Agriculture Today 4(4) 22-25 (2002)


Central Institute for cotton research, Nagpur is the premier research institute in cotton in the country.  Established in 1975, this institute has come a long way since its inception.  Mr. M J Khan , Editor, spoke to him recently over the cotton production scenario and future prospectus in the wake of the GEAC decision permitting the cultivation of transgenic cotton.


Sugarcane Biotechnology, V K Madan & Raman Kapur, Indian Farming 51(11) 31-33 (2002)


The goal of sugarcane biotechnology is largely to improve the efficiency of the breeder, to ensure fast productio of healthy planting material, and to precise molecular diagnoses of sugarcane diseases that can help to make the movement of cane seed safer and risk free.  The field of biotechnology fior the study of dseases has great potential in paving the way for disease control.


Prospects of Biotechnology in Increasing Agriculture Production, K.R. Koundal (IARI, NRC on Plant Biotechnology, New Delhi 12) Fert.News  46(12) 73-75, 77-78 (2001)  


More than half of the world’s poorest people depends on agriculture, many living in environment where crop failures are frequent due to drought and other national catastrophe.  The application of recombinant DNA technology to crop production has the potential to exert a tremendous impact on world agriculture in coming years.  Plant biotechnology complements plant breeding efforts by increasing diversity of genus and germplasm available for incorporation into crops.  Now tissue culture and genertic engineering techniques combined with traditional research methods allow to alter plants to have greater economic output.  Transgenic or genetically modified crop plants have been made both in food and cash crops e.g. improved resistance to herbicides, improved resistance to insects & pests and diseases, improved post harvest characteristics, improvement of protein quality and oil quality and increased nutrient contents.  The superior nutritional quality of the crop produce and products assure considerable importance and benefits to mankind can be many fold.  There is a greater need to promote and accelerate the efforts in mobilizing the tools of biotechnology and genetic engineering for improving the productivity, stability and sustainability of our major cropping system.


Will the Ternminator be a Traitor, Agriculture Today 2(4) 55-58 (1999)


The myths and facts regarding the terminator technology needs to be clarified to the end users so that they could be discerning enough while buying the seeds.


Fighting the Terminator Phobia, Agriculture Today 2(2) 45-46 (1999)


The controversy hogging the issue of terminator technology's repercussions in the country shows no signs of abating.  The paper while explaining the terminator technology, attempts an evaluation of scientific validity of the major issues.


Seeds of Ambiguity, Agriculture Today 1(6) 32-33 (1999)


Bio-tech supremo Monsanto goes into a fire fighting mode to counter tough opposition from agitators to the Bt cotton trials in India, in a nervous bid to extricate them from the "Terminator Gene" tangle.


Transgenic Crops: Call of the New Millennium, Agriculture Today 2(3) 5-9 (1999)


With both private and public sector in the agriculture industry gearing up to battle out the controversy facing transgenic crops, apprehensions regarding their implications continue to crop up nevertheless.  The million dollar question that worries everybody is whether the super crops be able to bring home the second "Green Revolution" they promise or become a threat to biodiversity.


Genetically Modified Crops : An Indian Perspective, Agriculture Today 2(3) 18-19 (1999)


"Use of transgenic in commercial agriculture is intimately linked with the global harmonisation of bio safety issues".  Case - by - case approach and people's consensus are necessary for the eventual acceptance of bio-safety protocols regarding genetically modified crops.


Biotechnology and Intellectual Property Rights, J P Mishra, Yojana 43(5) 15-20(1999)


The fears associated with the products of biotechnology are not so much because of the quality of product but because of the emerging IPR regime and control of intellectual property by the MNCs.


Genetically Engineered Crops : Issues and their Management, Ramesh Chandra Parida, Yojana 43(5) 21-23 (1999)


Constant vigilence by scientists, ecologists, social activists, farm leaders and above all, the goverment can prevent any attempt which may be detrimental to the long term interests.


Is Biosafety in Jeopardy? Agriculture Today1(5) 29-35 (1998)


The use of genetically bettered plants is common in agriculture today, but their acceptance varies from country to country, with the biosafety concerns placed first.


Biotechnology and Crop Improvement, Ram Krishna and Ram Nath, Yojana 42(7) 38 (1998)


The impact of biotechnology on crops and its economic importance has been dealt in the paper.


Use of Plant Tissue Culture in Crop Improvement, Rakesh Singh Sengar & Madhu Pandey, Yojana 42(7) 39-41 (1998)


In view of the enforcement of intellectual property rights and opening up of the world market, it has become essential that this powerful technique may be utilised for cloning and mass production of elite varieties of crops.


Biotechnology: A Threat to Feed Phosphates ?,   Phosphorus & Potassium No.218 27-29 (1998) 


Animal husbandry is a major cause of phosphorus release into the environment. Ways are now being found to improve the digestibility of the phosphorus contained in plant materials that would minimise this waste but will correspondingly depress the demand for supplementary feed phosphates.  The paper details two new developments that incorporate the enzyme phytase into animal feeds to enhance digestion of phosphates by livestock.


Biotechnology Tools - Possible Use for Increasing Rice Production,  N.P. Sharma et.al. (Directorate of Rice Res.,Rajendra Nagar, Hyderabad 500 030) Indian Farming 46(9) 21-24 (1996)  


Recent advances in cell, tissue culture and molecular biology have opened new avenues for genetic improvement of rice.  The new capabilities to genetically modify rice plant through application of cell culture and recombinant DNA techniques collectively known as biotechnology and genetic engineering, are expected to significantly strengthen rice breeding programme, stabilize yield levels and further enhance productivity of rice plant.  Some of the biotechnology tools that are of relevance to increase rice production are (i) wide hybridization for transfer of useful genes from related species, (ii) anther culture to shorten the breeding time of a variety, (iii) somatic cell culture for in-vitro screening of large cell population for variants resistant to stresses and for somaclonal variants, (iv) protoplast culture and production of asexual hybrids for transfer of alien variation, and (v) genetic engineering and DNA markers for gene transfer and gene characterization.  These techniques are expected to help rice breeding either in generation of new variability or add precision in selection.




Role of IT in Agriculture and Input Promotion : Experience of CFCL,  Nalin Rawal et.al. (CFCL, New Delhi) Fert.News 47(4) 71-75 (2002)


Future agricultural growth is mainly expected from the increase in productivity of diversified farming system with regional specialisation and sustainable management of natural resources.  Generation of quality information and transfer of the same would play a key role in improving agricultural productivity.  In this paper, an attempt has been made to discuss about the information related to agriculture in the post GATT scenario, international scenario of agri-portals and its future, use of electronic mass media in India for agricultural extension, role of IT in Indian agriculture, private information shops/kiosks,role of portal in various agricultural activities constrains and their remedies.  It also provides information regarding CFCL’s initiatives in IT for farmers etc.(6682)


Role of IT in Agriculture and Input Promotion - FAI Experience, T.K.  Chanda (FAI, 10 Shaheed Jit Singh Marg, New Delhi 110 019) Fert.News  47(4) 77-80 (2002) 


Information is the key to progress.  Proliferation of technology has opened up enormous possibilities with speed and accuracy.  The paper dwells on the role of IT, the experience of FAI with special reference to the development of web site for the fertilizer sector and the emerging role of IT in agriculture in future.


E-agribusiness in India Prospects and Constraints, S Das & B.C. Biswas (FAI, 10 Shaheed Jit Singh Marg, New Delhi 67) Fert.News 46(12) 51-54, 59 (2001) 


Information Technology (IT) is revolutionizing the world.  It is becoming integral part of almost all the sectors.  Agricultural business is not an exception  E-commerce in agribusiness have enormous potential.  India can become a major player in global agricultural trade by harnessing the potential emerging from e-agribusiness, because, it has an edge over others due to its vast resource base and agricultural diversity.  The paper deals with the concept, scope and advantages of e-agribusiness.  Global scenario vis-a-vis Indian perspective highlighting the Fertilizer Sector as well as in post WTO era have been discussed.  Some constraints are also mentioned and their remedial measures suggested.


Role of Information Technology in Agriculture and Its Scope in India, S.C. Mittal (IFFCO, Management Services Div., 34, Nehru Place, New Delhi 110 019) Fert.News 46(12) 83-87 (2001) 


Information of the required quality always has the potential of improving efficiency in all spheres of agriculture.  The emerging scenario of a deregulated agriculture,  has brought in a greater need and urgency to make it an integral part of decision making by Indian agricultural community.  Information Technology (IT) has a major role to play in all facets of Indian agriculture.  In addition to facilitating farmers in improving the efficiency and productivity of agriculture and allied activities, the potential of IT lies in bringing about an overall qualitative improvement in life by providing timely and quality information inputs for decision making. The personnel who work for the welfare of Indian farmers, such as extension workers, do not have access to latest information which hinders their ability to serve the farming community effectively.  This paper focusses on the scope for e-powering people who live in rural India as well as those who work for their welfare.  The latest developments in IT that facilitate effective IT penetration to rural  India, changing pattern of information requirements & role of IT, type of systems required in the post WTO environment, the bottlenecks in e-powering rural India along with possible solutions are examined.


Computing and Information Technology Applications in KRIBHCO, I.A.  Khan (KRIBHCO, Hazira) Fert.News 46(11) 13-15 (2001) 


Information Technology has revolutionised the functioning of all process industries including fertilizer.  Kribhco, an early adaptor of information technology, has been using it in various fields like database management system, steady state simulation of plant processes, optimisation of plant processes, monitoring and control of plant processes, research and development and equipment designing.  This article describes the efforts made by Kribhco to use information technology in various areas.


Infotech - A Way of Life at CFCL, P.C. Srinivasan (CFCL, P.O. Gadepan - 325 208, Dist. Kota, Rajasthan) Fert.News 46(6) 47-52,55 (2001) 


At Chambal Fertilisers and Chemicals Limited the IT journey started in 1994 with stage wise implementation of various modules on a Unix based system.  However with the advent of more user-friendly Windows based system, a gradual transfer was made to the latest state of art Oracle 8 relational database and Developer 2000 release 6.0 application.  The various window-based packages were implemented between April 1999 and October 2000.  The article describes the benefits and progressive improvements due to the application of Information Technology.


Information Technology in National Fertilizers Limited, A.C. Saini &  NFL, Noida, U.P.  Fert.News 46(6) 15-18 (2001) 


The information management has a direct impact on the performance of an organisation.  Today information and information systems are considered to be business assets.  In recent years, information systems have transformed totally because of the rapidly developing and improving technology.  This article describes the manner in which the fast developing information technology was made use of at NFL to improve the overall performance of the company.


Role of Information Technology in Fertiliser Manufacturing Operations, D.K. Agarwal (Indo Gulf Corporation Ltd., (Unit-Fertilisers), Jagdishpur Indust.Area 227 817, Dist. Sultanpur U.P.) Fert.News 46(6) 19-22 (2001) 


Strategic use of all the available information is a major challenge faced by most organisations today.  Executives know that providing the right information to the right people at the right time has a positive impact on their core business.  Increasing competition, rising customer expectations, reducing scrap and rework, economising on the cost of production and improving process capability and yield has necessitated restructuring of the industry.  Information technology if deployed in the right perspective and aligned with the people and business yield maximum benefit.  The organisations have to move from just processing data to wisdom organisation by capturing and managing the enormous experience or knowledge that exist. This article describes the importance of Knowledge Management and the Computerised Maintenance Management System (CMMS).  The operational framework and features of online CMMS and its future scope are also dealt with.


Integration of Information Technology with Instrument Technology - A Case Study at KRIBHCO, C.J. Shah (Krishak Bharati Cooperative Ltd., Surat) Fert.News 46(6) 57-59, 61-62 (2001) 


Information is playing a vital role in today’s time in all the fields.  An attempt has been made to highlight the benefits of integrating the information technology with instrument technology along with a case study at KRIBHCO.  The total job of integration has been done in-house.


Potential for E- Commerce in the Indian Chemical Industry, S.  Subramanian  Chem.Indust.Digest Vol.14 Annual - January 38-41 (2001)


Information Technology and in particular, the Internet is set to fundamentally change the way companies operate.  The chemical industry has been an early adaptor of e-commerce behind only the computer, the electronics and the automobile industry.  E-commerce offers the most exciting opportunities for the chemical industry and combined with the Internet create an integrated value chain.  The progress in this area, has been from company web pages , company’s own portals and now to third party market places.  This paper discusses the ways the Indian chemical industry can benefit from e-commerce.


IT Applications in  Fertiliser Marketing, V.M. Deshpande (Deepak Fertiliser and Petrochemicals Corporation Ltd., Pune) Fert.News 45(9) 23-25,27-28 (2000) 


Fertiliser Marketing, with its own peculiarities in respect of widespread customer base, multi-tier and multi-product distribution system, inaccessibility to millions of farmers etc, has been exploring IT (Information Technology) applications, though predominantly confined to despatch and sales accounting areas.  With partial decontrol of fertiliser sector in 1992 and the imminent possibility of total decontrol in the near future, floodgates of competition would open up not only from within but also from foreign suppliers.  In a commodity market like fertiliser products, what will make difference is data-based decision-making, its speed and capability to extend comprehensive services leading to a strong and loyal customer base.  It is here that IT applications hold potential to provide a competitive edge in the market place.  We could visualise B2B and B2C environment in Fertiliser Marketing areas during the years to come.


Role of Information Technology in Fertiliser Marketing, S.C. Mittal & T. Sudhakar (IFFCO, Management Service Div., 34, Nehru Place, New Delhi 110 019) Fert.News 45(9) 33-40 (2000) 


The potential of information technology is yet to be fully tapped in the major segment of the fertiliser industry with respect to markeing activity, notwithstanding the need for quality information for decision making.  This paper evaluates the possibilities of improving the efficiency and effectiveness of marketing operations with a well conceived I.T. deployment.  The paper also outlines the merging business environment with the passing of Information Technology Act, 2000 and the consequent prospects for fertiliser markeing operations.


Information Technology and Logistics Efficiency, J.S. Gogia  (CFCL, Gadepan, Kota) Fert.News 45(9) 43-45,47,49-50 (2000) 


Build up strong and reliable information system for logistics efficiency.  Integrate it with latest information technology to achieve the net speed, instead of putting it on the traditional bullock cart.  This is the way, the world is now conducting business for staying ahead of competition.  Beat your competitors with logistics if you want to remain in fertiliser business. Effective deployment of information technology shall give you competitive advantage by cost cutting and speed to serve the customers.  The magnitude of change in information technology has brought revolution in attaining the unimaginable speed with least error and cost-effectiveness in handling logistics of fertilisers.  The author has examined the role of information system in planning, designing, implementation and control of process by elaborating its main characteristics and flow of information.  He has tried to integrate the information system with various available tools of information technology for deploying them effectively in supply and distribution of fertiliser.


Role of IT in Agribusiness, Sovan Chakrabarty (Shriram Fert.Chem., New Delhi) Fert.News 45(9) 53-56 (2000) 


In the new world order “e” is the buzz letter these days - e-commerce, e-marketing, e-business, e-tailing ........ It is the “e” platform on which every enterprise, worldwide, is riding on for its business solutions.  This technology breakthrough has caught on in our country too, and the dot com fever is spreading like wild fire.  Can agribusiness in our country leverage this revolution in Information Technology ?  Will it be advantageous to our farming community and can it bring smiles to their is ..... Why not ?  The paper deals with these aspects.


Information Technology in Gas Transmission, Markeing and Distribution to Fertiliser Industry, S.K. Saha (Gas Authority of India Ltd., 16, Bhikaji Cama Place, New Delhi 110 066) Fert.News 45(9) 57-60,63-66 (2000) 


Natural Gas is an important feedstock for Ammonia-Urea Plants and feriliser sector is the largest consumer of gas in India.  GAIL is presently controlling about 95 per cent of India’s gas transmission market.  IT is an integral part of GAIL’s markeing and operation function for uninterrupted supply of natural gas and fulfilling the need of its customers.  This paper briefly deals with the present status, future requirement and supply of domestically available natural gas and distribution of imported liquefied natural gas, also impact of IT in gas transmission, marketing and distribution in India.


Information Technology and Management, S. Lakshiminarayanan (AIMS, Bangalore) Fert.News 45(9) 13-15 (2000) 


Information revolution is sweeping the country.  There is no activity or business which does not come under the purview of IT.  The role of IT in planning sustainable competitive advantage in the market place cannot be underestimated.  It will play a major role in overall cost leadership, product or service differentiation and focussed efforts in selected market segments.  Decentralisation has become possible to a great extent with instant access to information across geographical boundaries.  Simultaneous sharing of information between different functional areas and decision making based on indepth analysis of information have made the job more professional.  However, management of information Technology requires involvement of top management, their education and training.  With sweeping changes looming large in the policy horizon fertiliser industry can ill afford to ignore fullfledged use of IT for their very survival.


Hi- Tech Link to Boost Agri - Research, Sandhya Sharma, Agriculture Today 2(1) 52 (1999)


Agriculture Research Information System promises quick access to reports from across the country while also making cross-border transfer of information and technology possible.


Review of Fertilizer Information Status in Selected Countries,    Agro-Chem. News in Brief 21(4) 22-33 (1998) 


From mid-1997 and through 1998, FADINAP undertook a series of missions to selected countries of the region for the purpose of reviewing their current information capabilities and assessing their preparedness in adopting information technology.  FADINAP wanted to be assured of the seriousness in commitment of the participating countries - whether government or private sector - of human resources and facilities that would be made available for such an undertaking to become successful.  FADINAP presents the current fertilizer information scenarios in selected countries.


Computers in Agriculture, Prabhjyot Kaur & S.S. Hundal, Yojana 42(7) 37 (1998)


Simulation of the natural biological phenomenon and prediction of the unknown have been a challenge to the scientists.  In agriculture, predictions of crop production are necessary to assess the food demands of the burgeoning population and make policy decisions.  Since agriculture is affected by so many factors such as weather, crop variety, soil fertility, irrigation , incidence of insect, pests and disease, agronomic management practices etc., it becomes very difficult to predict the final yield.  In recent years with the introduction of computers, scientists have tried to develop complex models to mimic he biological processes such as growth of various crop plants on day to day basis and predict grain/biomass yields under the influence of various causative factors.




Integrated Control of Diseases in Sugarcane, O. K Sinha & H. N. Shahi, Indian Farming 51(11) 34-36,43 (2002)


The integrated control of red rot , smut, wilt, grassy shoot disease, ratoon stunting disease, mosaic etc. May increase 19.2% sugarcane production.  Integrated control of sugarcane disease can be done by crop diversification, prophylaxis, chemotherapy, rouging, thermotherapy, use of resistant varieties etc. Which will increase 310 million tonnes sugarcane production in 4.2 million ha (1999-2000).


Integrated Approach for Pest Management in Jute, L.K. Das, Indian Farming 50(11) 42-44 (2001)


Integrated pest management is the systematic ecological approach in which utilisation of all available techniques of pest control are used  to control and maintain pest population below economic injury level.  Integrated pest management deals with cultural, biological and chemical control.


Challenging Pests with Novelty, Agriculture Today 3(3) 6-10 (2000)


Farming practices, globally, are increasingly pinning faith on a balanced approach to pest control.  They have taken to growing use of bio-pesticides and bio-control agents while ensuring controlled and judicious use of pesticide chemicals.


Sugarcane (Saccharum species) Research in the Post-Independence Era, S.R. Mishra & A.K. Shrivastava (Indian Inst.Sugarcane Res., Lucknow 226 002) Indian J.Agric.Sci. 68(8) 468-473 (1998) 


Since Independence, commendable progress has been made in most of the areas of sugarcane (Saccharum sp) research vis-a-vis establishment of a strong research infrastructure which has not only improved the crop productivity per se but also augmented our knowledge about sugarcane. A large number of outstanding sugarcane varieties were developed which are sustaining sugar industry.  Commendable research work was done on cytogenetics, mutations, inter-specific hybrids, etc.  From crop production point of view, planting techniques, viz IISR 8626, spaced transplanting (STP), bud-chip method, polythene bag nursery, system of trash veins etc showed promise.  Concerted efforts were made in economizing water use and improving water-use efficiency.  Research efforts were made to improve the productivity of sugarcane planted after wheat harvest under north Indian conditions.  Studies in sugarcane physiology have led to understanding of growth and development, photosynthesis, response to abiotic and biotic  stresses, sugar accumulation arresting post-harvest deterioration and development of technology to induce ripening under difficult to ripen conditions.  Mechanization of sugarcane culture appears to be the only solution to labour scarcity, reducing cost of cultivation and performing cultural operations timely, so as to improve productivity per unit time, area and energy.  Some useful implements were developed in the country.  A good deal of research work was done on various aspects of sugarcane diseases, insect-pests and their management.  An integrated pest-management strategy against insect pests and diseases has been developed.(4290)


Integrated Pest Management : Is it a Panacea?, Hulas Pathak, Agriculture Today 1(2) 20-22 (1998)


The efficacy of IPM as an effective crop protection strategy remains beyond doubt but lot remains to be done to make it a farmers movement.


Integrated Pest Management for Higher and Stable Yield in Pulses, S Lal & Y.S. Rathore,  Indian Farming 46(10) 40-43 (1997)


A large number of insect pests, diseases, weeds and nematodes attack the pulse crops.  This is the reason that the yield of these crops is not only low, but also unstable over the years /seasons and locations.  Chemical control measures are not only hazardous for human beings, animals and microbes, but are costly too.  For minimizing the loss in yield due to these agents in pulses, the adoption of integrated pest management (IPM) is the only cheap, safe and eco-friendly solution.


Eco - Friendly Approach: Integrated Pest Management , Survey of Indian Agriculture 155-157, 1996


Indian farmers and agricultural technologists have made tremendous efforts in increasing food production during the last three and a half decades.  There has been more than a two fold increase in foodgrains production since 1960-60.  This is largely due to introduction of high yielding crop varieties , fertilisers, assured irrigation and improved agronomic practices.  However, to exploit the potential of these improved varieties and ward-off pests, chemical pesticides became essential.  The paper emphasises that training farmers through farmers' field schools will provide enormous IPM trained manpower in villages.


Integrated Approaches for the Management of Nutrients, Pests, Diseases and Weeds in Rice , S Rajamani, V Sarkunan, S.P. Chakravorty, Santosh K Mohanty, B.T.S Moorthy & U.D. Singh,  Indian Farming 46(9) 42-47 (1996)


Excessive use of chemicals as fertilisers, fungicides, pesticides, herbicides and weedicides has caused an imbalance in the nature and created additional problems.  Of late stress is being given to the eco-friendly concept of integrated management of nutrients, pests, diseases and weeds for sustainable agriculture.  The impact of these factors on sustainable rice production is very well described in the paper.


Integrated Pest Management in Fodder Crops, S.T.Ahmed, K.C. Pandey & R.B. Bhaskar, Indian Farming 45(10) 34-37 (1996)


Integrated  pest management is the selection, integration and implementation of pest control based on predicted economic, ecological and sociological consequences.  It is an ecologically oriented approach based on understanding of the biology and life history of the pest.  Such an approach may prove effective for controlling pests of different fodder crops.




Integrated Plant Nutrition System on Farmers Field , S.V. Kaore  (IFFCO Ltd., 53-54, Govardhan, Nehru Place, New Delhi 110 019)  Fert.News 47(2) 61-63 (2002) 


Requirement of next millennium is to meet the basic requirements of growing population.  It would mean enhancing the food grain production from the shrinking land and other natural resources by increasing their use efficiency.  Multi nutrient deficiencies are observed in the high cropping intensity areas.  Nutrient application based on soil testing should be promoted with thrust on integration of various sources of plant nutrients.  Supply of nutrients through various sources, their integration and management on farmers field would be crucial in increasing foodgrains production and maintaining soil fertility.  Demonstrations on nutrient use on farmers field is the most effective method of convincing the farmers to adopt the balanced fertilisation followed by wide publicity through print and electronic media.  Associate sales point personnel in field programmes.  A coordinated approach is required among various development agencies to work on holistic approach will go a long way in agricultural development.


Integrated Plant Nutrient Management (IPNM) in Agriculture : The Need of the Day, R.C. Jaggi et.al., Indian Farmers' Digest 34(1) 10-12 (2001)


The long term fertilizer experiments have shown that continuous application of suboptimal doses of chemical fertilizers to soils had a deleterious effects on soil productivity.  However, integrated use of organic manures with optimal levels of NPK fertilizers not only improved the nutrient status and soil health but also stabilized the crop yields at higher level.  The integrated use of organic and chemical fertilizers at optimum levels as determined by soil test in LTFE's indicate the build up of micronutrient/secondary nutrient reserves such as Zn and S.


Nutrient Management Strategies in Agriculture - A Future Outlook,  D.M. Hegde & S.N. Sudhakara Babu (Directorate of Oilseeds Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500 030) Fert.News 46(12) 61-66, 71-72 (2001) 


The greatest challenge in Indian agriculture in the coming decades is to increase production with ecological sustainability.  The added agricultural production must come primarily from land saving technologies by increasing per hectare yields.  In this context, the role of effective plant nutrient management in increasing and sustaining productivity needs no emphasis.  Presently, there is a net gap of more than 10 million tonnes (mt) of nutrients (N+P2O5+K2O) between nutrient removal and nutrient additions.  We cannot think of enhancing and maintaining high productivity with such a gap in nutrient use.  All efforts are to be made to match the nutrient removal and its additions.  Besides fertilisers, there are several sources of plant nutrients like organic (crop residues, FYM, compost wastes etc.) and biological in nature.  There is need to workout region specific nutrient supply packages integrating all the available sources of nutrients.  There is also a need to increase the overall nutrient use efficiencies by well established practices.  General nutrient management strategies for increasing productivity without deterioration in production environment is discussed.  Research gaps and future research needs in nutrient management are also indicated.


Nutrient Management in Fruit Crops, S.P. Ghosh (ICAR, Dept. Horticulture, New Delhi 110 001) Fert.News 45(4) 71-76 (2000) 


The need to enhance fruit production is sacrosanct in the next decade and the role of nutrient management is of paramount importance.  Contribution of fruits to nutritional security aspect of the national food security is unique.  The area under fruit crops is expected to go up substantially from 3.89 million hectare in 2000 to 5.15 million hectares in 2010, but still a four-fold increase in productivity of fruits is necessary to meet the expected fruit requirement of 109 million tonnes in 2010.  Mineral fertilisers will continue to be pivotal but the role of Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) involving proper use of organics is imperative.  The futuristic strategy should involve growing of superior nutrient-efficient fruit plants which will receive balanced supply of macro-, secondary-and micro-nutrients through INM involving organic, mineral and biofertilisers applied in the most appropriate manner.  In this article, a projection of fertiliser nutrients needs, strategies to tackle constraints and future needs of research in the next decade are discussed with due emphasis on productivity and sustainability.


Nutrient Management in Spices, K.V. Peter   et.al. (Indian Inst.Spices Res., Calicut, Kerala) Fert.News 45(7) 13-18,21-25,27-28(2000) 


India “Land of Spices” is the world’s largest producer, consumer and exporter of spices.  Spices were grown in 2.4 million ha with a production of 2.74 million tonnes of which 2.1 lakh tonnes valued Rs. 1650 crores exported in 1998-99.  To meet the internal consumption and international demand an annual growth rate of 8 to 10 per cent is envisaged.  Productivity (yield/ha) is low in India in many of these spices.  Yield in black pepper (315 kg/ha), small cardamom (154 kg/ha), ginger (3477 kg/ha), turmeric (3912 kg/ha), coriander (591 kg/ha) and cumin (578 kg/ha) are very low compared to Malaysia (2925 kg/ha in black pepper) and Guatemala (250 kg/ha in small cardamom).  Lesser fertiliser use, low fertiliser use efficiency and micronutrient deficiency are the major reasons for the low productivity.  An integrated plant nutrient management system is developed.  Technologies for production of clean spices through organic agriculture by recycling the farm wastes and other organic sources are being standardized as the demand for quality products is increasing.


Status of IPNS in U.P. Hills, R.D. Singh  (V.P.K.A.S.(I.C.A.R.), Div.Crop Production, Almora 263 601) Fert.News 44(8) 39-41 (1999)  


Unlike farming system based on high input, the existing crop production in hills is unique and fulfills the concept of integrated plant nutrient system (IPNS).  The cattle wastes, namely, dung and urine, forest litter, green leaves of trees, shrubs, vines and crop residues are the major organic inputs.  The major hurdle in the use of compost is their low nutrient status.  A number of studies conducted at the institute have shown that combining FYM with mineral fertiliser reduce the amount of mineral fertiliser to achieve the same yield levels.  Soil properties also improved due to organic nutrition.  The paper discusses a series of laboratory and field experiment on IPNS.


Nutrient Management through IPNS in Farmers’ Field IFFCO Experience,  Virendra Kumar  et.al. (IFFCO Ltd., 53-54, Govardhan, Nehru Place, New Delhi 110 019) Fert.News 44(12) 89-94, 99-106 (1999) 


Food security will be the main issue of the next millennium.  It would mean enhancing the food production from the shrinking land and other natural resources.  Supply of nutrients integrating various sources and scientific application in farmers field would be crucial in increasing foodgrain production.  Laying out IPNS based demonstrations in farmers’ field by extension workers would pave the way for actual adoption of IPNS based nutrient application by farmers.  IFFCO has generated useful information on nutrient management in field crops through trials and demonstrations.   Results of soil test based and sulphur nutrition trials are convincing.  IPNS trials conducted by IFFCO and salient results in the form of yield, profit, B:C ratio and apparent balance sheet of nutrients are described in this paper.  The results convincingly demonstrate benefits due to adoption of IPNS based technology over the normal Farmers’ practice of nutrient application.  The apparent nutrient balance sheet derived from 4 locations reveal a positive balance for phosphorus in most of the cases; nitrogen balance is manageable while situation in case of potash is alarming requiring attention.  Case study of a village has also been described.  Results clearly depict the benefits of efficient collaboration on IPNS has helped in bringing out a guide on the subject.  Further collaboration will help in dissemination of the IPNS approach at farmers’ level in India and other developing countries.


Integrated Plant Nutrient System : A Mission for 21st Century, Hulas Pathak, Agriculture Today, 1(1)36-37(1998)


IPNS aims at sustainable productivity with minimum deleterious effect of chemical fertilisers on soil health and environment.  The need of the future is to increase the consumption of plant nutrients through all the sources.


Integrated Nutrient Management for Sustainable Forage Production in Pastures and Silvipastures, C.R. Hazra (Ministry of Agric., Dept.Agric. Coop., Krishi Bhavan, New Delhi 110 001) Fert.News 43(3) 33-40,43,45 (1998)   


The role of nutrients in increasing  the productivity of forage crops grown in association with trees and shurbs is substantial.  Phosphorus is found to be critical input for range legumes.  Potash is required for higher biomass producing plants and specially in irrigated and high rainfall areas.  Non-symbiotic biofertilisers like Azotobacter and Azospirillum to grasses and Rhizobium to legumes are important for increased herbage yield.  VAM inoculation is also effective in almost all perennial forage grasses, legumes and crops.  Biofertilisers in conjuction with low amount of fertiliser nutrients is found as useful practice.


Fertilizer, Plant Nutrient Management, and Sustainable Agriculture : Usage, Problems and Challenges, Peter Gruhn   et.al. (IFPRI, 2033 K St. NW, Washington, DC 20006 USA) Proceedings of the IFPRI/FAO Workshop on Plant Nutrient Management, Food Security and Sustainable Agriculture : The Future Through 2020, Italy,Viterbo, May 16-17, 1995 p.9-22, USA, Washington DC, IFPRI, 1998 


The paper illustrates the growth in the production and use of fertilizer over the past thirty-five years and briefly examines some of the major impediments that have limited fertilizer application, particularly in sub-saharan Africa.  Fertilizer related environmental problems in many developed countries and the decline in soil fertility in developing countries is described.  The paper details the use of IPNM to maintain and enhance soil fertility, while minimizing environmental damage.  The details of the role of government to establish an enabling environment and the necessary support for IPNM to be successful in sustaining agriculture through the year 2020 and beyond has been discussed.


Balanced Nutrition Under Threat: A Key Role in Integrated Nutrient Management ,   Asia Fab No.20 18-19,21 (1998) 


Asia can today muster the largest percentage of potential arable land already under cultivation, the largest area under irrigation, the largest total gram yields and the highest per hectare rate of fertiliser use.  These factors have led to the gains in terms of total food production that marked the Green revolution.  However, these gains are now under threat, as Asia is also characterised by the most imbalanced NPK fertilizer consumption ratios.  The ways to redress the imbalance is considered in this review.


Integrated Soil Nutrient Supply and Management Strategies for Sustainability of Rice-Wheat System on Salt Affected Soils, Anand Swarup, Indian Farming 46(10) 4-6,8-11 (1997)


About 2.5 million ha of salt affected soils are essentially sodic(alkali)  in nature and primarily occuring in he indo-gangetic alluvial plains.  This can be put under rice-wheat system.  Reclamation of these soils can be accomplished by partial or complete removal of exchangeable sodium and its replacement with calcium ion on the soil exchange complex along with a set of other cultural practices.  Apart from effective soil reclamation, efficient and integrated management of nutrients through chemical fertilisers, organic and green manures is extremely important for improving and maintaining fertillity of theses soils and sustained productivity of rice and wheat at maximum level.


Integrated Nutrient Management For Sustainability, G.B. Singh and B.S. Dwivedi, Indian Farming 46(8) 9-15 (1996)


In India, intensive agriculture involving exhaustive high yielding varieties of cereals has 

led to heavy withdrawals of nutrients from the soil during past 3 decades.  Fertiliser consumption(N+P2O5+K2O), though crossed 13.5 million tonnes mark   during 1994-95,

remained much below he estimated nutrient removal of 22-24 million  tonnes leaving a

gap of about 10 million tonnes.  This gap between nutrient removal and  supplies through

fertilisers is likely to widen further as the foodgrains and other agricultural commodities needed for projected population of 1 billion by the by the turn of the century  would remove as high as 34 million tonnes of plant nutrients from the soil  as against  estimated fertilisers consumption of 18 million tonnes.  Although the current  gap is partly bridged up by sources other than fertilizers, the contribution of such organic  sources and biological processes is not exactly known.  The fertiliser use is not only   inadequate  but also highly imbalanced because of fertiliser to be used by an average  Indian farmer often depends on its availability and price, and is rarely decided by local recommendations or soil  tests.  As a result, the current fertiliser consumption ratio is  8.9:2.8:1.0 as against the generally accepted optimal ratio of 4:2:1.  These erratic fertiliser use patterns, if continued over years, would cause much greater drain on native soil fertility and the soil will not be able to support high production levels in future.


Strategy for Balanced Usage: Integrated Nutrient Management, Survey of Indian Agriculture 151-153 (1996)


The nutrient management scenario in the country has undergone three phases of development.  The period  1950-1965 witnessed increased  awareness of chemical fertilisers, along with due consideration for the practice of application of organic sources of nutrients and green manuring.  The beginning of the green revolution in the mid sixties initiated a sudden spurt in the use of chemical fertilisers and gradual decline in the use of organic resourced green manures.  The third phase, can be traced to the mid seventies, mid eighties onwards and the period since 1992 when decontrol of complex fertiliser prices was introduced.  The oil crisis witnessed globally in the mid seventies with shortage of fertilisers renewed interest in India in the propagation of integrated nutrient management involving greater recycling of organics  into agriculture.The article advocates the integrated nutrient supply and management system as a viable approach for sustaining food security in rainfed areas.


Integrated Nutrient Management for Sustainability, G.B. Singh & B.S. Dwivedi, Indian Farming 46(8) 9-15 (1996)


In India, intensive agriculture involving exhaustive high yielding varieties of cereals has led to heavy withdrawals of nutrients from the soil during past 3 decades.  Feriliser consumption, though crossed 13.5 million tonnes mark during 1994-95, remained much below the estimated nutrient removal of 22-24 million tonnes leaving a gap of about 10 million tonnes.  This gap between nutrient removal and supplies through fertilisers is likely to widen further as the foodgrains and other agricultural commodities needed for projected population of 1 billion by the turn of the century would remove as high as 34 million tonnes of plant nutrients from the soil as against estimated fertilisers consumption of 18 million tonnes.  Although the current gap is partly bridged up by sources other than fertilisers, the contribution of such organic sources and biological processes is exactly not known.  The fertiliser use is not only highly imbalanced because of fertiliser to be used by an average Indian farmer often depends on its availability and price, and is rarely decided by local recommendations or soil tests. As a result, the current fertiliser consumption ratio is 8.9:2.8:1.0 as against the generally accepted optimal ratio of 4:2:1. These erratic fertiliser-use patterns, if continued over years, would cause much greater drain on native soil fertility and the soil will not be able to support high production levels in future.


Integrated Nutrient Management for Tea in North-Eastern India, A.C.  Barbora (Tea Res.Association, Tocklai Experimental Stn., Jorhat 785 008 ) Fert.News 41(12) 77-79,81,83 (1996) 


Fertiliser use in India first started in tea. And over the years the crop removal of plant nutrients has increased with the increase in productivity. Multi nutrient deficiencies have also become a common feature in tea garden. The rational and the practical means to man these complex problems, is to practise IPNS. The paper deals with present status of IPNS in North eastern tea garden and also provides suggestions for the future.


Nutrient Management in Vegetable Crops for Sustainable Production, R.P.Sharma and D.S.Rana, Fert.News 38(7) 31-44 (1993)


After attaining food security, country is now striving hard to achieve health security, endangered by malnutrition.  In this context, production of so called protective food `Vegetable' need to be stepped up as there is alarming gap between the availability (135g/day/capita) and minimum requirement (285 g/day/capita).  Research work done on the nutrient management of vegetable crops and vegetable based cropping system shows that vegetable crops respond to nutrients addition through FYM, green manures and chemical fertilisers.  Therefore, efficient management of this integrated nutrient supply system (INSS) is a pre-requisite of achieving continuous advances in biological productivity of the vegetable crops in an ecologically and economically sustainable manner.  Exploitation of interaction among the plant nutrients and other crop husbandry factors would add to futuristic increase in vegetables production.  In vegetable crops, nutrient management also affects the nutritive, keeping and marketing quality of the produce and this demand for rational fertiliser use.




Water Resources Development and Irrigation Potential in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, S.C. Pramanik et.al., Indian Farming 50(9) 18-20 (2000)


In spite of heavy rainfall in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the agriculture is mostly rainfed as hardly 10.6 per cent area is reported to be under irrigation.  If the vast  potential of this natural resource (i.e. water) is tapped and utilized scientifically, the grey field will surely turn into green very soon.


Drip Irrigation and Water Management, S. Kannan and S. Gurumurthy, Yojana 43(2)15-16 (1999)


There is an urgent need to utilise the available water resources in more efficient and cost effective manner by increasing the yield per unit of water  used.


Sprinkler Irrigation Vs Surface Irrigation : A Case Study, P.S. Shekhawat and R.C. Sharma, Yojana 42(2) 40,42 (1998)


Short Communication.


Drip Irrigation for Precision Farming, Saurabh Kumar, Agriculture Today II(3) 67-69 (1998)


Drip irrigation system is an efficient way of utilising water resource and providing sufficient moisture to the crops.  Given a boost, the technology holds a great potential in improving agricultural productivity.


Role of Irrigation in Higher Crop Productivity, S.B.Varade, Fert. News  43(4)59,60,63(1998)


Water available in India, its consumption pattern, potential of irrigation and actual irrigated area are given.  The reasons for the gap between potential and actual are briefly mentioned.  The role of irrigation and drainage in crop productivity with data is presented and discussed.  Improved methods of irrigation and their role in increasing yields and sustainability are reviewed along with actual data for several crops.  Drip irrigation is discussed.  Changes in methods of water resources management to commensurate with changing time are mentioned.  Policies and strategies for such changes are also discussed in this paper.


A Test to Measure the Knowledge Level of Mango Orchard Growers About Drip Irrigation System, C.P. Desai et.al., GAU Res.J. 24(1) 58-61 (1998)


)Adoption of drip irrigation system is the only alternate to use irrigation water in agriculture economically.  However, knowledge about drip irrigationn system plays a crucial role for better understanding and efficient utilisation of the system.  Hence, there is a great need to measure the knowledge level about drip irrigation system.  But, the measurement of knowledge would be impossible without a standard test.  Keeping this in view, an effort was made to develop the test.  The test developed could be used to measure the knowledge level of mango orchard growers about drip irrigation system as well as at other places with partial modifications.


Efficient Water Management is Key to Our Success, Agriculture Today 1(4) 4-6 (1998)


Israel, a tiny nation of just 5.5 million people, difficult even to spot on the global map, continues to surprise one and all with its economic miracles.  The runaway progress of agriculture, despite many odds, makes today Israel a fitting example to be emulated by other nations.  The paper reports of the success chronicle of the nation.


Testing Drip Irrigation in Gujarat, D.D. Malavia &  V.B.Ramani, Agriculture Today 1(4) 17-19(1998)


Latest innovations like drip irrigation technologies can be effectively employed to maximise precious resource like water.  Drip irrigation is one of the highly efficient methods of water application, specially suited to fruit crops, vegetables and wide spaced field crops.


Effect of Drip Irrigation on Hybrid Coconut, R. Venkitaswamy et.al., Madras Agric. J. 84(10) 591-593(1997)


A field experiment was conducted in coconut from 1989 to 1996 to study the effect of methods of irrigation viz. Drip irrigation and basin irrigation and forms of fertiliser in hybrid VHC-2 coconut.  The results revealed that basin irrigation at IW/CPE ratio of 1.0 at 4 cm depth influenced the growth and yield characters and nut yield.  Drip irrigation at 100 per cent Eo also recorded increased nut yield and the yields were on par with basin irrigation at IW/CPE ratio of 1.0.  The forms of fertilisers did not influence the nut yield.


Drip Irrigation for Sugarcane, P.K. Selvaraj et.al., Indian Farming 46(10) 17,18,20 (1997)


Sugarcane is an important commercial crop of India.  On a global basis sugarcane contributes 55 per cent of the total sugar production.  Consumption of sugar is increasing consequent to the increase in the population and standard of living.  Next to rice, sugarcane requires more water due to its longer duration. About 80 per cent of the irrigated area is dependent on ground water.  Sugarcane requires water continuously.  The water requirement for sugarcane is estimated to be equal to 80 times of the harvested stalk weight.  Adoption of efficient irrigation practices will go a long way to economize the water usage and also to bring more area under irrigation.  Drip irrigation is the only alternate system for special situations like sandy soils , low rainfall areas, sloppy lands and for areas where no other irrigation practise is feasible.


Moisture Distribution Pattern in Drip Irrigation, K.K. Mishra and S.K. Pyasi, J. Of Res. 5(1) 59-64 (1993)


The study was conducted at central soil salinity research Institute, Karnal for evaluation of performance of drip irrigation.  The moisture distribution in drip irrigation was more uniform in the vicinity of emitter up to a radius of 10 cm and then non-uniformity increased with the distance from emitter.  The water front advanced rapidly in the beginning and then rate of advance decreased with incresase in time.  The discharge of emitter increased with increase in number of threads outside emitter .  Relationship between the discharge Q and number of threads outside the emitter (X) can be explained by exponential equation of the form Q = aXb.


Sprinkler Irrigation is Advantageous in Alkali Soils, S.K. Verma and N.C. Shrivastava, Indian Farming 42(9) 37 (1992)


Short Communication




Organic Farming and Fertility, K.M. Sellamuthu, R. Devaraj and M. Muthamilselvan, Kisan World 27(5) 11-12 (2000)


The article highlights that organic farming, by reverting to the use of manures, green manures, urban wastes, rural wastes etc., can bring sustainability to agriculture with eco-friendiliness.


Organic Manure and Natural Farming, Arabinda Ghosh, Yojana 41(8) 74-77,82 (1997)


The paper cautions against any rigid approach in the use of fertilizers.  While the total dependence on chemical fertilisers may prove costly, the lobbying for only organic fertilisers for a stable food supply may prove unrealistic.  A combination of the two is ideal for Indian agriculture.


Organic Farming and Biofertilizers for Sustainable Agriculture, Dinesh Mani, Yojana 41(7) 26-27 (1997)


Short Communication


Organic and Natural Farming Prospects in India, G.Prabhakar Reddy and B. C Chandrasekhar, Yojana 38(3) 10-11,13(1994)


With the increase in crop yields from modern farming techniques reaching a plateau and the environmental problems due to excessive use of plant protection chemicals and mineral fertilizers mounting, the need for sustainable and ecological agriculture is increasingly felt in the country.  Alternate farming systems like organic and natural farming can be practised so that the soil health and environmental sustainability is maintained.  The conventional farming systems are energy intensive although they increase the crop production and labour efficiency, causing adverse effects on soil fertility.




Strategies to Improve Agricultural Productivity in Subsidy-free Environment , Subhash P. Kalwe, Soumitra Das and B.C. Biswas, Fert. News 45(12) 97-98,103-108 (2000)


India made a commendable progress in Agriculture in last three decades or so.  This is popularly known as green revolution.  The rate of growth in food production has surpassed by the rate of growth of population in late nineties.  Onset of the second generation problems in Indian agriculture along with the probable threats arising due to globalisation can play havoc with the Indian food security if the necessary steps are not taken.  Various sectors have to play a certain role in order to harness the opportunities provided by globalization and also prevent the possible ill effects on Indian agriculture.  In this paper an attempt has been made to describe the expected roles of agroprocessing, agroforestry, weather forecasting, seed and fertiliser industry, along with institutions and human resource development in agriculture in the light of changed scenario higher agricultural production.


Improving Post Harvest Technology of Fruits and Vegetables, H.P. Singh, Yojana 42(12) 34-35,41-42(1998)


Short Communication


Need for Post Harvest Technology in Fruits and Vegetables, L.S. Srivastava, Yojana 43(3) 38-39 (1999)


One of the reasons for low availability of fruits and vegetables is the post harvest loss to the extent of 30-40 per cent worth about Rs.23,000 crore annually.




Precision Agriculture- An Emerging Concept, Chinmay Biswas & A.V.M. Subba Rao, Yojana 44(6) 24-25 (2000)


Food security has been threatened by declining productivity, soil salinity, micro-nutrient deficiency, water logging, ground water depletion and development of resistance and resurgence in pests.  To alleviate the ill effects of excess and under application of inputs a new form of farming, Precision Agriculture , is on the way.


Precision Farming : A Step Towards Sustainable Agriculture, Sandeep Kumar, Dheer Singh and Sanjay Kumar, Indian Farmers' Digest 33(4-5) 17-22 (2000)


Precision in terms of both time & quantity of inputs and agronomic practices, envisage a prospect which can help in increasing the foodgrain production without increasing the cost of cultivation & not having any adverse effect on soil & environmental health.  In precision farming all the agronomical practices are followed in right time & right quantity which not only increase the crop production but also sustain the productivity for future without involvement of any extra input.


Betting on Precision Agriculture, Agriculture Today III(4) 54-56 (2000)


Spatially variable crop production has been commercialized in the USA. Although there are no systematic means of evaluating the extent of adoption, anecdotal evidence, some limited studies have shown that its popularity is growing among farmers.  The arable agricultural management being practised in Europe is also relatively precise and popular among farmers.  For augmenting food output and minimising environmental pollution, precision agriculture is the fast emerging safe bet as against the conventional farm practice given to uniform use of inputs regardless of spatial variability.


Precision Agriculture - Practical Applications of New Technologies, John S Gummer & Peter Botschek, Fert. Soc. Proc. 428 pp.28 (1999)


The paper gives the details of the Keynote address and discussion of the 7th annual conference on precision agriculture - practical applications of new technologies.


Trends in Information Technology for Precision Farming, Peter Jurschik, Fert. Soc. Proc. No.427 pp.22 (1999)


Information management is one of the most important key factors in precision farming.  The future of this new process technology is especially dependent on the efficient and cost effective handling of data and information.  The paper discusses methodologies and tools for data acquisition and processing for precision farming and current developments in technology with a special focus on the situation in Europe.


On - farm Experience of Precision Farming, John P Fenton, Fert. Soc. Proc. No.426 pp.30 (1998)


For  years managers have taken advantage of new technologies in a bid to enable better management decisions and to improve the economic efficiency of operations.  The application of Information Technology to agriculture , whilst being relatively new, has opened up the way for significant changes in crop production management and agricultural decision making.  Precision farming offers the promise of increaesd productivity, whilst decreasing production costs and reducing environmental impact.


A Fast-Track Evolution,   Fert.Intern. No.357 56-60 (1997) 


Precision farming is perhaps the next great frontier in world agriculture. While the concept needs to be evaluated further, it does appear to offer benefits in terms of higher productivity and the more efficient use of fertilizer inputs, as well as embracing sound enviornmental practices.  At present, precision agriculture is on the point of take off in both North America and Western Europe, as farmers begin to realise the value of site-specific nutrient management.  Progress - and potential pitfalls - are evaluated in this review.


Implications of Precision Farming for Fertiliser Application Policies,C.J. Dawson,  Fertiliser Society, 1996, Fertiliser Society Proc. No. 391, 44p.


Precision farming is perhaps the next great frontier in world agriculture.  While the concept needs to be evaluated further, it does not appear to offer benefits in terms of higher productivity and more efficient use of fertiliser inputs, as well as, embracing sound environmental practices.  At present, precision agriculture is on the point of take off in both North America and Western Europe, as farmers begin to realise the value of site specific nutrient management.  Progress - and potential pitfalls - are evaluated in this review.




Assessment and Management of Diaraland Soils Using Remote Sensing Techniques, B.B. Mishra, J Mall and I.D. Singh, Indian Farming  50(11) 22-26 (2001)


Floodplain soils are lowland of low relief underlain by horizontal strata of aluvium.  The paper has proposed a saperate 13th order 'Fluvisol' for inclusion in the 'USDA soil taxonomy' with 'chemihydropedoturbation' for flood plain soil based on various geogenic, pedogenic, hydrologic, biotic and climatic features observable with these soils during 15th World Congress of Soil Science held in Mexico in 1994 and subsequently during International Conference on Managing Natural Resources for Sustainable Agricultural Production in the 21st Century,2000 in New Delhi.  Based on reports available at the Sabour Centre as well as elsewhere, the theme of this proposal is elaborated following 11 features of relevance.


Remote Sensing in Agriculture, Kabita Debnath Das, Soumitra Das and B.C. Biswas (The Fertiliser Association of India, New Delhi) Fert. News 45(10) 27-30 & 35-42 (2000)


Information regarding natural resources, estimation of acreage, production and yield of crops, early warning system, etc. would be more crucial inputs in improving farm productivity in years to come.  The traditional system of resource management is expensive and time consuming.  Future would, therefore, witness higher use of hi-tech like remote sensing in generating the required  information.  The paper makes an attempt to discuss the importance and use of remote sensing in agriculture.


Prediction of Wheat Yield Under Different Management Practices Using Remote Sensing Parameters, Y.V. Subba Rao, R.N. Garg and D.K. Das, Ann. Agric.Res. 20(2) : 202-205 (1999)


Study on effect of management practices with different irrigation frequencies on the growth and yield of wheat through remote sensing inputs revealed that spectral vegetation index was well correlated with leaf area index in wheat under all management practices.  The cumulated vegetation index values from 27 days after sowing to day the maximum leaf area reached, it correlated well with grain yield.  It was found to give good fit in chiselling plots compared to other management practices.


Remote Sensing in Agriculture: Potential Uses, Ajay Verma, Yojana 43(11) 7-9 (1999)


Non-availability of Cadastral Survey maps over inaccessible terrain, combined with the lack of reliable information in different growth stages are serious disadvantages of the conventional method in forecasting crop yields.  Remote sensing satellite imageries provide timely and accurate estimation of crop acreage and crop yield well before their harvesting schedule.


Varietal Discrimination of Kharif Rice Varieties Using Remote Sensing Techniques, R. Krishnan, S. Natarajan & R.S. Jayamani, Madras Agric. J. 85(5,6) 262-264 (1998)


Field experiments were conducted during 1992 and 1993 to study the possibility of varieties viz., ASD 18, ADT 36, IR 50, IR 60, IR 64, JJ 92, TKM 9 and CO 37 which are predominantly grown in the command areas of Tamil Nadu were considered for the study.  Spectral reflectance and crop biometrics were recorded at fortnightly intervals from 30 DAT upto harvest.  The results revealed that four rice varieties viz., ADT 36, IR 50, IR 60 and JJ 92 alone could be discriminated from each other, whereas the other four rice varieties could not be discriminated because then spectral reflectance of these varieties were closer to one another.  The crop biometrics like LAI, chlorophyll content, leaf nitrogen content and biomass production were responsible for the varietal discrimination.  The discrimination was well pronounced in red and infrared bands and also in vegetation indices like IR/R and IR-R.


Uses of Remote Sensing in Agriculture, A.K. Nayak, S. Rath & P. Raha, Yojana 40(5) 6-9 (1996)


Agricultural remote sensing based on the actual need based information and high tech digital analysis with appropriate interpretation is the need of the hour to enrich the agricultural information system and make Indian agriculture sustainable in a true sense.       


Valuable Information Tool : Remote Sensing, The Hindu Survey of Indian Agriculture 176-177 (1996)


The goverment has to remove the constraints in the distribution of remotely sensed data so that farmers can access them easily and in time.




Seed Development and Intellectual Property Rights, S. Prakash Tiwari, Yojana 45(1) 41-46 (2001)


One of the most vital keys to success in our evdeavour towards agricultural sustainability in the country is to build up a globally competent seed industry in the country.  The post-GATT scenario calls for preparedness especially in terms of global competitiveness and protection of intellectual property rights.


Production and Marketing of Seeds in India, Om Prakash and M.J.M. Reddy, Fert. Mktg. News 32(2) 11,13,15,17,19-21 (2001)


Seed is a very vital input and a dynamic instrument for increasing agricultural production.  The growth in the seed industry is directly relate to the farmers preparedness to change and adopt to new varieties and techniques.  The article discusses the seed production and its marketing in India.


Seed Scenario in India: Constraints and Approaches in Availability of Quality Seed, B.Gopal Reddy and K.Chandra, Agricultural Subsidies Global Dimensions, FAI Seminar 2000, SIV-2/1-2/5


Quality seed, one of the major inputs for crop production, is pre-requisite for higher crop yield and quality.  Last decade has witnessed rapid increase in quality seed production in the country after the implementation of New Seed Policy of 1988.  Indian seed industry got great boost with the launch of National Seed Project.  The total good quality seed requirement of the country is estimated at 1097 thousand tonnes of certified seeds by the end of Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-2002) against the estimated availability of 830 thousand tonnes.  There is, therefore, urgent need to ensure the availability of quality seeds to the farmers.  The paper discusses the seed scenario of the country and suggests suitable measures to improve the various constraints in availability of quality seeds.


Picking  Holes in New Seeds Act 2000, Agriculture Today III(4) 21-22 (2000)


There are glaring missing links in the New Seeds Act 2000 which make imposition of effective punitive measures against perpetrators of certain serious malpractices in domestic seeds trade very difficult.  The major illegal activities affecting the organised seed sector are sale of spurious seeds and duplication of seeds produced by ethical companies.  The paper reports of some amendments suggested in the act to provide it more teeth to curb malpractice, essentially at the hands of fly-by-night operators, and to prevent harassment to ethical players in the market.


Poised for a Leap, Sachin Saksena, Agriculture Today III(4) 24-33 (2000)


The Indian seed industry attains a critical mass, backed by impressive average annual growth of 23 per cent.  Riding on the back of a surging domestic demand for field and vegetable crops, the seed sector gears up to put in use select technologies in developing proprietary hybrids as also to produce genetically modified or transgenic plants in the near future.  What is further notable is its rapidly growing potential to get to the forefront of global business sooner its rapidly growing potential to get to the forefront of global business sooner than later.


Broadening Horizons : Indian Seed Industry, Agriculture Today III(4) 34-36 (2000)


Founded on the strengths of aggressive national research and business activity, Indian seed sector today has all the trappings to turn into a Rs.3500 Cr industry, pending the much needed changes in the existing seed regulations.  There are sound prospects for the sector in foreign markets - Asian, African and South American Markets - although transnationals like Aventis, Monsanto, Dupont - Pioneer hold sway in field crop seeds and Dutch, Japanese, U.S. and French Cos have a tight grip over vegetable seeds market.


Changing Role of Seed Retailers, R.M. Arora, Agriculture Today II(2) 49-50 (1999)


Brand conciousness is acting as a seed -bed of expectations from the retailer, who is to not only cater to the farmers seed requirements but has to assure the role of expert guide on purchase of the input.


Reforming the Seed Industry, Deepak Mullick, Agriculture Today I(3) 11-14 (1998)


India embarked on the path of economic liberalisation by introducing major structural and sectoral reforms in 1991. It started with a progressive policy for the seed industry aimed at stimulating the growth in seeds R & D, production, distribution, varietal choice and enforcing quality laws strictly to weed out unscrupulous operators.


Role of Quality Seeds and Other Means of Increasing Production of Foodgrains, Partha R. Das Gupta, Fert. News 43(4) 55-58 (1998)


Immediately after the independence the country started facing the problem of foodgrain shortage.  Whereas increase in irrigation facilities gave some initial boost, the existing crop varieties failed to respond to higher doses of fertilisers.  The first breakthrough came about from the growing of dwarf, high yielding varieties of wheat from CIMMYT, Mexico.  Subsequently , the advent of semi-dwarf HYV rice from IRRI, strengthened the process of green revolution.  Newly established state owned seed corporations and private companies played a vital role in distribution of these seeds.  Further improvements in crop varieties, modernisation of agriculture practices and above all, successive occurence of normal monsoons, have enabled India maintain a comfortable position in regard to foodgrain situation.  However, experts feel that the technologies that brought about the green revolution have reached a plateau and no further significant gains can be expected unless some new breakthroughs are achieved.  With the present rate of growth in food production the country could be heading towards another crisis before the next decade.  The paper presents a discussion on some of the new technologies viz., hybrid rice, single cross maize, bioengineered  varieties, modernisation of seed technology, etc., that could help avert such possible crisis.


Role of Seed Industry in the Growth of Indian Agiculture, R.B. Singh, Structural Reforms and the Fertiliser Sector, FAI  Seminar 1995 SIII-1/1-1/8


Seed is the base of agricultural production and it has played a key role in increasing foodgrains production of the World and India as well.  Increase in high quality seed production has resulted in higher use of plant nutrients too.  The paper deals with production and distribution of quality seeds, role of plant nutrients in seed production, Indian seed law in seed quality control, seed testing, training and HRD, role of different seed sectors, key role of IARI, impact of WTA and new seed policy in seed production.  Future line of work has also been suggested.


Seed Sector Poised for Quantum Growth, Yojana 38(16) 28-29 (1994)


Short Communications




AGRISNET - An Agricultural Informatics and Communication Network to Usher in Digital Opportunities on Sustainable Agriculture and Inputs Promotion, Madaswamy Moni, Fert. News 47(4) 57,58,61-65,67,68 (2002)


The paper reviews government initiatives in establishing Information & Communication Technology Network (ICT): AGRISNET - to usher in digital opportunities for sustainable agricultural development and also as to how it will facilitate "Inputs promotion" in the country.  In view of the on-going macro level economic reforms, implementation of WTO's Agreement on Agriculture and grass root level decentralisation , AGRISNET has the potential to usher in a-Governance in the country.  This ICT Network facilitates for integrated approach of "Internet Technology" and sustainable Agricultural, Rural and Backward Area Development with its farm and non-farm linkages for sustainable livelihood.


Nutrient Mining in Different Agro-Clmatic Zones of Bihar, B.B. Mishra, J. Mall, J. Choudhary and R. A. Singh, Fert. News 46(11) 21-28, 31-38,41-43 (2001)


Intensive production system causing heavy nutrient mining followed by inadequate replenishment through fertilisers has ultimately led to emergence of multiple nutrient deficiencies in soils of different agro-climatic zones of Bihar.  For whole state, the ratio of annual removal of NPK is 1:0.213:1.020 whereas addition as fertilisers in terms of NPK ratio is 1:0.242:0.10.  The soils of zone III indicate the most serious situation where the net annual removal of 33.9 per cent N, 41.3 per cent P and 97.3 per cent K is recorded.  The situation becomes more alarming when net balance sheet of mining of NPK is computed on the basis of nutrient use efficiency.  Zonewise systematic research works on assessment of all-macro secondary and micronutrient inputs through different sources are inadequate.  Addition of nutrients through fertilisers is erratic and far below the national average consumption whereas addition through FYM, crop residues, irrigation water, compost, biofertilisers and vermiculture is neither appropriately documented nor in practice by farming mass.  The occurence of annual flood and upwelling of water in some zones complicates the computation procedures for nutrient's addition and removal to soils.  The state has immense potential of organic manures, crop residues and similar recyclable wastes which may be scientifically processed for beneficiation and applied for promoting soil health and crop yields.  Integrated plant nutrient supply system following balanced fertlisation needs to be developed specifically for resource poor farmers of the state and this may only sustain the potential productivity of the soils.  The present report is based on review work done on the extent of nutrient mining and suggestions for minimizing the threats of unsustainability owing to exhaustive cultivation coupled with  imbalanced and inadequate fertilisation of soils in different agro-climatic zones of Bihar.


Nutrient Mining in Agro-Climatic Zones of Rajasthan, A.K.Gupta, Fert. News 46(9) 39-43, 45-46 (2001)


The present paper attempts to review important characteristics of each agro-climatic zone of  Rajasthan including its coverage, soil, climate, principal crops and major constraints to productivity.  The native fertility of most of the soil types in Rajasthan is in woeful state.  Th level of fertiliser consumption is substantially low (43 kg NPK/ha).  Analysis of data reealed that the crop removal of plant nutrients(NPK) from soil is of the order of about 21 lakh tonnes and the addition through fertilisers is only 7 lakh tonnes.  This simply indicates the annual gap of about 14 lakh tonnes.  The nutrient use pattern is not only inadequate but also imblanced; dominated by N and P fertilisers.  The us of K secondary and micronutrients is neglected in most cases.  Mining of K is the highest followed by N,S and P.  There is an urgent need to supplement these nutrients top reserve soil health. Suggestions for arresting nutrient mining have also been made to maintain soil fertility and crop productiity on sustainable basis.


Nutrient Mining in Agro-Climatic Zones of Assam, K.Boakakati, H.C. Bhattacharya & R.M.Karmakar, Fert. News 46(5) 61-63 (2001)


Mining of nutrient reserves from soil fif allowed to continue without replenishment may lead to deterioration of soil health and decline in crop productivity.  Constrained with soil acidity, high phosphorus fixation, nutrient losses from soil along with socio-economic problems, the state of Assam needs special attention on research and development strategies.  To achieve the targeted production to feed the growing population by 2025 A.D. in the state balanced application of nutrients per unit gross cropped area reckons challenge.  Situation specific modern varieties, integrated nutrient management , organic recycling and supplementary nutrient addition are the keys to uphold productivity at high and sustained level.


Nutrient Mining nad Apparent Balances in Different Agro-Climatic Zones of Uttar Pradesh, R.L.Yadav, B.S.Dwivedi, V.K. Singh and Arvind K. Shukla, Fert. News 46(4) 13-18, 21-28 & 31 (2001)


Uttar Pradesh contributing nearly 19 per cent to the total foodgrain production occupies significant place in Indian agriculture.  The present agricultural scenario in major part of teh state is characterised by intensive production systems with heavy withdrawal of plant nutrients, and inadequate replenishment through fertilisers.  The exhaustive crop management practices followed in the state as a whole have led to emergence of multiple nutrient deficiencies in the soils of different agro-climatic zones.  Thus degradation in soil resources in terms of depletion of native nutrient reserves may have the direct bearing on national food security.  Apparent nutrient balances worked out considering possible nutrient additions through different sources viz., fertilisers, organic manures , crop residues and irrigation water, and removal by crops have presented an alarming picture of negative K balance in the all nine zones.  This is particularly because the use of K fertilisers is largely neglected, as apparent from the wide N:P2O5:K2O consumption ratio of 20.8:6.8:1.0 in the state,  the state has vast potential of organic manures, crop residues and other recyclable wastes, which need to be tapped to restore and improve soil health.  The present paper reviews critically the status of nutrient mining in the state, and also offers suggestions for preventing/minimizing the threats of unsustainability owing to exhaustive farming - induced degradation of soil fertility.


Nutrient Mining in Different Agro-Climatic Zones of Uttaranchal, S.S. Pal, B. Gangwar, M.L. Jat and B.S. Mahapatra, Fert. News 46(4) 93-102 (2001)


The information on nutrient mining highly essential to develop nutrient management strategies for planning both at micro and macro level, for sustainable management of precious soil resources and to create a food secured society.  Nutrient mining is a serious consequence in agriculture and it occurs when the net flux of nutrient output exceeds these input leading to deterioration of soil quality.  The recently created state Uttaranchal represents two districts agro-ecological zones viz. Hill zone and Bhabar and Tarai zone.  In the present paper, important characteristics of each zone including soil,climate, crop, cropping system and constraints in farming system as well as soil productivity constraints have been explained for describing nutrient mining in soils of Uttaranchal and to develop future strategy.  Based on the data collected and analytical approach as explained in the paper, mining of K is highest followed by N and P.  Similarly, keeping in view of the low status of nutrients like S,Zn,B,Mo and Cu in the soils of Uttaranchal and their mining through various crops, there is an urgent need to supplement these nutrients for sustaining soil health and crop productivity.  Suggestions for  arresting nutrient mining have also been made for the state through sustaining the productivity base and preserving environmental security.


Soil Health : Key for the Sustainable Agriculture, Ubaid Khan and B. Mishra, Indian Farmers' Digest 34(10) 31-35 (2001)


With a view to maximize food production, man has exploited and impoverished the soil fertility, thereby degrading soil health, and developed ways and means (physical, chemical and biological) of eliminating the competing crop species to the benefit of growing crop plants, thus disturbing the equilibrium operating in the soil-plant-animal system.  Thus, increases in production efficiency are accompanied by greater dangers to the soil health.


Stepping Towards Sustainable Agriculture, P.C. Bhatia, Indian Farming 50(11) 4-6 (2001)


As the world's second most populous nation, India has achieved considerable success since the mid-seventies in increasing foodgrains production, establishing record buffer stocks, avoiding food imports and reducing the national incidence of poverty.  Some 35-45 per cent of rural families still live below the poverty line however, and one-half of these are chronically undernourished.  Therefore, the issue of sustainability becomes very vital to meet the future food and nutritional requirements.


Sustainable Agriculture for Secure Future, Agriculture Today III(4) 52-53 (2000)


Countering ecological imbalances and saving the bio-diversity are the essence of sustainable agriculture.  Organic farming and sustainability help maximally in safegaurding the environment and preventing degradation of natural wealth.  Growing threat to environment from exploitation by humans have sharpened the need for sustainability.  The concept of sustainability has largely derived from cross-linkages between agriculture, population growth.


Fertiliser Application for Monitoring Soil Health,  Ramendra Singh, Agriculture Today II(5) 31-32 (1999)


Under intensive agriculture system, monitoring of soil health has become a necessity as soil is given no recess to recuperate.  Leaving land fallow as was the practice in traditional agriculture has no place under the new system.  Fertiliser industry in India has come a long way.  Its role has changed from simply producing fertilisers to an industry committed towards improving soil health.


How to Reduce Deterioration of Soil Health in Intensive Cultivation System, H.R. Mishra, Indian Farmers' Digest 32(12) 14-16 (1999)


Continuous nutrient imbalance may lead to substantial deterioration in soil health, which is reflected in overall reduction in physical, chemical and biological properties of soil.  Therefore, immediate attention is needed to adopt protection strategies against the deterioration of soil health hazards in intensive cropping system.  These practices should be followed at the level of farmers so that the serious imbalances in the ecosystem can be checked.


Right Soil for Healthy Farming, Bharat Prasad, Agriculture Today 1(4) 8-9 (1998)


Soil health is most critical for obtaining healthy crops.  But, due to intensive cropping and imbalanced diet, the soil health, in most parts of our country, is rapidly declining, which is an alarming situation for our food security.  Long - term sustainability of high productivity is not possible unless soil health has adequately taken care of all the nutrients required for high yields in sufficient quantities. The use of organic manures and bio-fertilisers is essential to maintain soil fertility, reduce the cost of cultivation and preserve the ecosystem.  Declining soil organic matter and decreasing fertilisers use efficiency are the serious threats to sustainability in agriculture.


Crop Productivity and Sustainability, Surinder Sud, 41(2) 5,8 (1997)


Short Communication.


Organic Farming and Biofertlizers for Sustainable Agriculture, Dinesh Mani, 41(7) 26-27 (1997)


Short Communication.


Soil Health - Key to Sustained Agricultural Productivity,  N.N. Goswami and R.K. Rattan, Fert. News 37(12) 53-60 (1992)


Maintenance of soil health is an essential pre-requisite for sustaining agricultural productivity.  Anthropogenic activities including and involving intensive agriculture devoid of supplementation of sufficient organics, imbalanced use of chemical fertilisers, over-irrigation leading to secondary salinisation etc. have constantly degraded soil health.  Attempt has been made in this article to examine the causes and effects of such deteriorations on growing plants and soil environment and suggest remedies to cure sick soils wherever possible.




Balanced and Integrated Nutrient Management for Sustainable Crop Production: Limitations and Future Strategies, G.B. Singh & P.P.  Biswas (Indian Council of Agric. Res., New Delhi) Fert.News 45(5) 55-60 (2000) 


In order to meet food and other social requirements of burgeoning population crop productivity has to be sustained at higher level.  This could be achieved and sustained only if use of both mineral fertilisers and organic resources in a balanced and integrated manner is ensured under the active participattion of the coming generation.  Future research and government policy should be framed accordingly with adequate infrastructural facilities.


Soil Test Based Fertiliser Use - A Must for Sustainable Agriculture,  A.Subba Rao & Sanjay Srivastava (Indian Inst.Soil Sci., Nabibagh, Bhopal 462 038) Fert.News 45(2) 25-28,31-35,37-38 (2000) 


During the last three decades, the cooperating centres of Soil Test Crop Response correlation (STCR) project have generated numerous fertiliser adjustment equations for prescribing rates of fertiliser application for obtaining targeted yields of crops on a variety of Indian soils.  Prescriptions derived from the adjustment equations have been tested in numerous follow-up and front-line demonstrations in several states.  Post-harvest soil test prediction equations generated in the project help to arrive at attractive fertiliser recommendations for the cropping systems very precisely.  The project has also generated useful equations to arrive at the appropriate targeted yields which not only help to realize higher benefit : examples drawn from the fore-mentioned studies have been presented in this paper to give a fair idea on how soil test based fertiliser use helps in sustaining food grain production and maintaining soil fertility in India.


Fertiliser Application for Sustainable Yield in Long Term Experiments, M.R. Vats  et.al. (Indian Agric.Statistics, Res.Inst., New Delhi) Fert.News 44(8) 43-46 (1999) 


Balanced fertilisation of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium has shown to maintain the yield stability of crops.  At a number of locations the results from long term fertiliser experiments have shown that for most of the crops taken in cereals based cropping systems the yields obtained at one and a half times the optimum rates of fertiliser application were significantly higher than those under optimum (100 per cent NPK-soil N test based) levels.  The yield gaps were observed to be quite large necessitating a fresh look at fertiliser recommendations to crops in view of continuous significant yield responses obtained at higher than the optimum levels to the crops even after more than two decades of continuous application of  fertilisers.  Based on the fitted quadratic response function on the mean yield for individual years obtained at the graded levels of NPK fertiliser application response maximising and economic optimum doses for the crops in cereal based cropping systems at various locations have been worked out at a five yearly interval.  The results, by and large, suggest adoption of economic fertiliser NPK doses for sustained crop yields at most of the locations.


Fertilizer, Plant Nutrient Management, and Sustainable Agriculture : Usage, Problems and Challenges, Peter Gruhn  et.al. (IFPRI, 2033 K St. NW, Washington, DC 20006 USA) Proceedings of the IFPRI/FAO Workshop on Plant Nutrient Management, Food Security and Sustainable Agriculture : The Future Through 2020, Italy,Viterbo, May 16 -17, 1995 p.9-22, USA, Washington DC, IFPRI, 1998 


The paper illustrates the growth in the production and use of fertilizer over the past thirty five years and briefly examines some of the major impediments that have limited fertilizer application, particularly in sub-saharan Africa.  Fertilizer related environmental problems in many developed countries and the decline in soil fertility in developing countries is described.  The paper details the use of IPNM to maintain and enhance soil fertility, while minimizing environmental damage.  The details of the role of government to establish an enabling environment and the necessary support for IPNM to be successful in sustaining agriculture through the year 2020 and beyond has been discussed.


Water and Nutrient Management in Sustainable Agriculture, J.S.P.  Yadav  et.al. (D-24, IARI Campus, New Delhi 110 012) Fert.News  43(12) 103,104,107-114,117 (1998) 


Efficient use of water and fertiliser is highly critical to sustained agricultural production, and will continue to occupy a dominant place in future to meet the projected growing demands matching with rapidly swelling population, more particularly in the context of declining per capita land and water availability, pollution, degradation and increasing fertiliser cost etc.  The use efficiency of these inputs is very low in India.  The experimental results reveal that interaction between these two costly inputs governs sustainability of high crop productivity.  Higher fertiliser application is beneficial only under adequate moisture regime, nutrient availability being low under both very deficient and excess moisture.  Likewise, water use efficiency is higher with higher fertiliser application and the two inputs act independently beyond a threshold level.  Fertiliser application minimises the adverse effect of poor quality irrigation water, and fertigation through drip method has given promising results with certain high value crops.  Attempts in this paper have been made to review the information available on various aspects of water and nutrient management and emphasis has been laid on undertaking well planned long-term investigations to develop system-based production technologies leading to increased synergistic interaction between water and fertiliser use.


Towards Sustainable Growth of Agriculture, R.S. Paroda, Yojana 42(7) 40-41 (1998)


Development of Integrated pest and nutrient management approaches, watershed development for rainfed areas, using well advanced remote sensing application for resource assessment and management and strengthening of partnership with International Research Institutions are some of the priorities which would make the goal of sustainable agriculture production a reality.


Sustainable Agricultural Growth: Accent on Dryland Farming, Manoranjan Sharma, Yojana 42(6) 19-22 (1998)


Sustainable and perpetually productive bio-mass (food, fibre, fodder, fuel, bio fertilisers etc. requires an increase in productivity with sound conservation practices.  This necessitates development of appropriate agricultural technology, conducive economic policy and land tenure framework, development of waste and drylands and availability of credit and related rural infrastructural input.  Balanced, equitable and sustainable growth can be achieved by reducing the debilitating effects of deficient agro-climatic  factors by ensuring adequate availability of critical input.  Measures to enhance productivity, spread the effects of seed fertiliser technology to other parts, structural changes in the composition of  foodgrains production and reduce the extent of vulnerability to variations in agricultural output by increasing and stabilising agricultural production are urgently called for.  Rightly it has been stressed that the focus has necessarily to shift to development of dryland tracts.


The Need of Bio-Inoculants for Sustainable Agriculture, Subodh K.  Dixit (National Biofertiliser Development Centre, 204-B Wing, CGO Complex -II, Kamla Nehru Nagar, Ghaziabad 201 002) Indian Fertilizer Scene Annual 8, 53-57 (1995) 


There is a need to use chemical fertilizers in balanced proportions along with integrated use of all the available sources of plant nutrients for development of sustainable agriculture. Integration of chemical, organic and biological sources of plant nutrients and their efficient management has shown promising results in not only sustaining productivity and soil health but also in meeting a part of chemical fertilizer requirement for different crops. Hence, it is very important to adopt the Integrated Plant Nutrient Supply System (IPNS) for sustaining crop productivity. The paper emphasises the role of biofertilisers for sustainable agriculture. It also gives the statistics & economics of biofertilisers and their future needs.


Balanced  Fertilisation and Sustainable Agriculture in the Wake of Recent Policy Changes, Power Prasad* (IARI, New Delhi) Paper presented at The FAI Seminar”Challenges of Liberalisation in the Fertiliser and Agriculture Sectors”, New Delhi, Dec.8-10, 1994, New Delhi, FAI 1994 pp.12 


High yielding varieties of crops need considerable amounts of N,P and K and for sustained productivity balanced fertilisation is a must. Achievement of foodgrain production goal of 240 million tonnes/annum by 2000 AD cannot be conceived unless adequate P and K is applied along with nitrogen. The experience in the past shows that not only N, P.K but some other nutrients e.g. zinc and sulphur have become deficient in many soils. As we march towards 21st century and with increased food production, deficiency of other macro and micronutrients is likely to show up. There is a need to establish soil-plant health care centres for proper diagnosis of nutrient deficiencies. We also need to explore the possibilities of increasing efficiency of applied P and K in view of their increased prices.


Nutrient Balance and Sustainable Agriculture in West Coast Plains and Ghat Region, P.S. John & Mercy George (Kerala Agric.Univ.,College of Horticulture, Vellenikkara, Trichur 680654) Fert.News 36(6) 59-65 (1991) 


West Coast Plains and Ghat Region is characterised by rice-based, coconut-based, homestead-based farming systems and plantations. Therefore for sustained higher agricultural productivity a system approach is recommended for this zone. A negative balance for the total primary nutrients is observed between supply and removal by crops. Deficit was observed for nitrogen and potassium while phosphorus was supplied in excess than removal. However, the deficit of NPK was 20 per cent of the crop removal and 25 per cent of the nutrient supply. suggested measures to narrow down this gap include strengthening of agricultural extension and group farming activities aiming to enhance the use of chemical fertilisers, recycling of crop residues, green manuring and bio-fertilisers.


Nutrient Balance and Sustainable Agriculture in Gujarat Plains and Hills, S.B. Kute & N.H. Haria (GSFC, Fertilizer Nagar 391 750)  Fert.News 36(6) 67-73 (1991)  


Removal of nutrients by crops on gross cropped area are worked out and balance sheet for each district of Gujarat State and Union Territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu is worked out on gross additions and efficiency basis. Variations amongst the districts of the region are critically examined. The gap is very wide in case of ‘K ‘and also in case of N and P when the balance sheet is on efficiency basis. Measures to decrease the gap are proposed. Constraints are described and future strategy for sustained agriculture is suggested.


Nutrient Balance and Sustainable Agriculture in Eastern Himalayan Region, H.C. Bhattacharyya & A.K. Pathak (Regional Agric.Res.Station, Assam Agric.Univ.,Tibabar, Jorhat 785 630) Fert.News 36(6) 19-22 (1991) 


Depletion of soil nutrient reserves due to very less  replenishment of the lost nutrient, poses threat to sustainable agriculture in the Eastern Himalayan Region. Constrained with various natural, technological, input-related, organisational and socio-economic problems, the region needs special attention on research and development strategies to reduce risk in nutrient use, increase response to applied nutrients, improve nutrient consumption and to raise crop productivity at a high and sustained level to achieve the targeted foodgrains production of 86 and 220 lakh tonnes by 200 and 2050 AD, respectively. Situation-specific modern varieties and production technology including nutrient balance which are technologically feasible, economically viable and ecologically sustainable, are the key to uphold productivity at high and stable level.


Nutrient Balance and Sustainable Agriculture in Middle Gangetic Plains Region, P.K. Das  et.al. (Hindustan Fertiliser Corp.Ltd.,Calcutta) Fert.News 36(6) 23-27 (1991)   


The paper  presents a brief analysis of the salient features of the Middle Gangetic Plains Region covering 27 districts of Bihar and 12 of eastern U.P. with particular reference to the gap between the nutrient removal by crops and addition through fertilisers. The exercise reveals estimated NPK gap of about 300 thousand tonnes per annum. In addition, annual removal of S, Zn and Fe was computed to be around 147 thousand tonnes. Collation of data from case study and canvassing 720 randomly selected farmers in 16 districts of the region points out cropwise NPK balance. Excepting wheat, in all other important crops including rice there is NPK deficit. Measures to reduce the nutrient gap for sustained agricultural production and  maintenance of soil wealth of the region through farmers’ education on integrated nutrient management specially through organic resource, biofertilisers and appropriate cropping system with incorporation of legumes have been highlighted.


Nutrient Balance and sustainable Agriculture in Upper Gangetic Plains Region, V. Kumar  et.al. (IFFCO, New Delhi) Fert.News 36(6) 29-33 (1991)   


The Upper Gangetic Plains is one of the  most potentially productive regions in the country. Higher cropping intensity and crop productivity coupled with imbalanced use of fertiliser is widening the gap between nutrient removal by crops and nutrient replenishment through fertiliser and other sources. increasing fertiliser use efficiency, incorporation of legumes in crop rotations, utilisation of  organic resources to supplement the nutrient replenishment, increasing availability of fertilisers and adopting appropriate farming system are some of the measures essential for achieving nutrient balance and sustaining agriculture in this region.




Vermiculture : A Sound Soil Replenisher, Rajinder Kumar Dhall, Agriculture Today IV (I) 5-6 (2001)


Immoderate chemicalisation of farmlands has adversely affected soil health which can be ideally restored with the use of vermiculture- the organic, eco-benign option which acts as a bioreactor in soil by changing waste into organic manure.  Earthworms modify soil texture, while improving soil aeration, fortifying the soil nutrients and promoting valuable soil microflora useful for plant growth.


Vermiculture for Disposing Urban Litter, Harender Raj and M.L. Bhardwaj, Agriculture Today IV (I) 50 (2001)


Vermiculture is a potential biodegrader of urban waste - Indian cities generate 80,000 tonne of solid waste every day - and is a cheap and abundant natural resource and an eco-compatible alternative to the conventional means.  What is more, the converted waste makes valuable organic manure rich in soil microflora and nutrients for agriculture.


Vermiculture  and Development of Agriculture, S.K.Sntra and K.L.Bhowmik, Yojana 45(3) 43-45 (2001)


Vermicompost technology  makes it an important component of organic farming in the days ahead.  It is likely to attain a special significance from the point of view of abatement of pollutional hazards created by large amount of organic wastes in India and also reduce the demands for chemical fertilisers.


Vermitechnology: An Emerging Technology for Waste Management, Poonam Gupta and C.P. Dwivedi, Indian Farmers' Digest  34(10) 36-39 (2001)


The earthwormic biodegradation is an acofriendly process which has great potential for organic waste management and simultaneous pollution abatement.  There is great scope of this technology in developing countries like India.  A proper platform for extension and popularization of this already existing technology is sure to change the latest trend in the field of environment friendly biotechnologies.


Importance of Vermiculture in Agriculture, D.K.Roy, Indian Farmer Times 17(11) 17 (2000)


For sustainable development of agriculture, it is essential to develop and promote organic agriculture or vermiculture , which seeks to coexist with natural system .  This system relies upon crop rotations, crop residues, animal manures, green manures and organic wastes.  The paper enumerates the advantages of organically grown crops.


Vermiculture Paving the Way for Prosperity in Hill, Rajio Singh and Narendra Kumar, Indian Farmers' Digest 33(2) 36-40 (2000)


Small and marginal farmers of hill region have started taking measures to check the fast diminishing fertility level by adopting "vermiculture" a low cost, low energy biotechnology for sustainable hill agriculture.  Easy availability of  biodegradable materials from forest and domestic animals has made the task simpler.  Growing interest in adoption of "vermitechnology" for preparation of highly nutritious Vermicompost is becoming way of life of hill farmers.


Feasibility of Vermi-Farming in Peanut - Vegetable Pea Cropping System, R.A. Singh, Indian J. Agron. 5(2) 257-262 (2000)


A study was undertaken to improve the pod yield of 9 groundnut and grain yield of vegetable pea for creating possibility of pollution free environment.  Release of earthworms as vermiculture in peanut was found significantly better, giving higher pod yield than all other ingredient combinations except farmyard manure @ 100q/ha + vermiculture@ 60,000/ha.  The use of FYM @100q/ha + release of earthworm in peanut significantly increased the yield of succeeding crop of vegetable pea over all the treatments except the use of FYM @ 100 q/ha in combination with vermiculture @ 60,000 /ha.  Thus the peanut and vegetable pea could successfully be raised under sequential cropping by the use of FYM @ 100 q/ha + vermiculture @ 60,000 /ha to peanut and N15 + P40 Kg/ha as a starter dose to vegetable pea besides better management of natural resources and residue for higher poductivity and monetary return.


Need of Vermiculture for Horticultural Crops in New Era, D.K.Singh, Indian Farmers' Digest 32(6) 7-8 (1999)


Sustainability with environment friendly agriculture is the key word in planning of agricultural development. Vermiculture or permaculture is one of the important measure to improve the environment safer besides quality and quantity improvement of horticultural crops.  Vermicomposting has been successful in horticultural crops and proliferate well in shady nature of the fruits and vegetables.  Vermicompost has been adopted by many farmers in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamilnadu, and other states.


Need of Vermiculture for Horticultural Crops in New Era, D.K. Singh, Indian Farmers' Digest 32(4) 25-26 (1999)


Modern agriculture heavily  relies on intensive use of chemicals like fertilisers, insecticides, pesticides, herbicides, and growth regulators, genetically improved seeds, irrigation water and mechanization. These technologies being capital-intensive are beyond the reach of poor farmers in India.  However, sustainability with environment friendly agriculture is the key word in planning of agriculture development.  Vermiculture or permaculture is one of the important measure to improve the environment safer besides qualitative and quantitative improvement of horticultural crops.


Potential of Earthworms in Sustainable Agriculture, Janardan Singh and S.N. Rai, Yojana 42(11) 10-12 (1998)


India is very rich in earthworm resources with both peregrine and endemic species for the development of vermicomposting as an industry.  The metabolic process of earthworms are faster in warm and tropical regions and this has greater significance in development of Vermiculture Biotechnology.  Ecological and biological studies on several endemic species are lacking.  Therefore, extensive studies are urgently required on biodiversity of earthworm species which have a great future in Indian agriculture and vermicomposting programme.


Vermicompost : a Promising Source of  Plant Nutrients, T.J. Purakayastha and R.K. Bhatnagar, Indian Farming 46(11) 35-37 (1997)


Vermicompost, an organic manure produced due to conversion of garbage by earthworms is richer in essential plant nutrients than ordinary farmyard manure.  It not only supplies essential elements to plants but also improves physico-chemical and biological properties of soil.  Unlike chemical fertilisers, vermicompost is cheap and sustains crop yields without deteriorating soil health, thus having promise to marginal and resource poor farmers.


Earthworms in Agriculture, M.R. Bhiday, Indian Farming 43(12) 31-33 (1994)


The technology of earthworm cultivation can be very well adapted and is the right kind of technology for agriculture and waste disposal for the rural masses.  If they are involved and provided with some finance earthworm technology can initiate totally, the organic farming in India which is the answer to the present deterioration in the land and water resources.


Recycle Kitchen-Waste into Wormi-Compost, Indian Farming 43(12) 34 (1994)


Short Communication




Participatory Watershed Management, J.S.Samra, Yojana 45(1) 24-27 (2001)


Watershed boundaries do not recognize artificial land use demarcations like forest , agriculture etc. and entire area is expected to be developed simultaneously from ridge to valley.The article summarises the salient features of the National Watershed Development Programme for Rainfed Agriculture.


Watershed Management : Learning From Field, Agriculture Today III(V) 54-57 (2000)


Today, comprehensive and integrated watershed development efforts are focused on a broad development objective - of tackling together poverty alleviation and sustainable use of land, water and vegetation resources utilization using a participatory development approach, recognizing  community participation and integrated land and water management for optimal moisture retention and biomass production within the watershed.  This goal can best be realised by policies and technologies that promote environmentally benign farming practices and augment food productivity and water resouces alongside.  The paper discusses some basic issues of watershed management based on three years field level experiences from research explorations.


People's Role in Watershed Management, Agriculture Today II(3) 32-35 (2000)


Watershed management should result into an improved livelihood and social life stylem in harmony with nature based on the cosmic vision of a community.  However, if a social organisation is already in existence, it could be used for the purpose.


Integrated Watershed Management - A Boon for Hill Agriculture, Jetendra Kwatra and Vishwanath, Indian Farmers' Digest 32(12) 19-20 (1999)


The deterioration of natural resources in an area can be contained and the total resources may properly be developed only by adapting the watershed aproach.  Watershed is a manageable hydrological unit and development is not confined just to agricultural land alone but covers the area starting from the highest point of area to the outlet of nalah or the natural stream.


Watman Info Card for Watershed Development, K.M. Varadan, Yojana 43(3) 49 - 50 (1999)


Watershed Development Projects were taken up in different parts of the country under various programmes such as Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), Desert Development Programme, Integrated Wasteland Development Project and of late the National Watershed  Development Programme in Rainfed Areas (NWDPRA).  For scientific planning of these programmes basic information on soil, climate, land, water, crops etc. will become useful and can be integrated with the local requirements and techniques.  It is in this context the water management information card(Watman Info Card ) for each watershed in the country will become relevant.  These information are not only useful for planning and development of water resources but also help to avoid localised problems.


Watershed Development Concepts and Strategic Land-Water Managemet Options, Dilip Fouzdar, Yojana 43(10) 26-30,49 (1999)


The watershed approach is devised fundamentally to deal with water resources, its quantification and distribution in time and space, so as to formulate strategic schemes, to use water most logically matching its availability against the needs.


Watershed Management for Sustainable Development, B.N. Navalawala, Yojana 42(11) 5,6,14 (1998)


Short Communication


Watershed Development - A Tool for Rural Uplift, Yojana 41(3) 15-18 (1997)


Watershed is a geo-hydrological unit and drains at a common point.  It has been accepted the world over as a scientific unit for area development.  The long term objective of watershed development is the rational utilisation of natural resources of soil, water and vegetation for increasing and stabilising the productivity of land on a sustainable basis.


Water Harvesting, Yojana 40(11) 34-35 (1996)


Short Communication


Managing the Wetlands and their Watersheds, E.J.James, Yojana 38(24) 43-50 (1995)


Rightly called as "Nature's Kidneys", the wetlands are among the most important ecosystems on planet earth.  Their usefulness as sources, sinks and transformers of a number of chemical, biological and genetic materials is well established.  Development and management of wetlands, therefore should form an integral part of the watershed management plans, recommends the paper.


Agro-Climatic Regional Planning and Watershed Development, H.G. Hanumappa, Yojana 38(24) 73-76 (1995)


Since Indian Agriculture is predominantly dependent on vagaries of rainfall, the need for augmenting production and productivity on dry land has assumed significance.  Watershed development programmes have an edge over other approaches in this regard.  However, people's participation is a pre-requisite for the success of these programmes.


Water Harvesting for Better Results, Ganesh Singh, Yojana 38(3) 20,22 (1994)


Short Communication.


Water Conservation Measures for Sustainable Agriculture, M.S.Rama Mohan Rao and V.N.Sharda, Indian Farming  44(7) 18-19,21-23 (1994)


It is estimated that of the 1.35 X 10 9 km2 of water available on earth surface, only 0.6 percent is fresh liquid water.  Even the whole liquid water is not easily exploitable and 98 percent of it forms groundwater resource, half of which lies at a depth (more than 800m below the ground surface.  The conservation of water becomes all the more important in view of erratic and unevenly distribution of rainfall.


Planning a Watershed for Drought Prone Areas, Anil K Ganeriwala, Indian Farming  44(7) 51, 53 (1994)


It is estimated that 160 million hactares of watershed ares have been degraded in the tropical developing countries alone.  If these and other watersheds are to be rehabilitated, integrated watershed management is essential.


Watershed Management and Soil and Water Conservation, D.C. Das, Indian Farming  44(9) 19-23 (1994)


The paper describes the Objectives of watershed management, Strategy and Approach, Technology options , Benefits and Future perpectives of watershed management.


Integrated Watershed Development : A Holistic Approach for Resource Conservation, A.M. Krishnappa and B.R. Hegde, Indian Farming  44(9) 25-30 (1994)


Soil, water, vegetation , animal and human resources are the natural endowments of a region deciding its productivity.  Continued exploitation of these natural resources and utter ignorance on their susceptibility to ill management, has already caused unimaginable damage and posed a serious threat to future survival of mankind.  An immediate halt to this process of deterioration, through integrated watershed development, is a crying need of the hour to sustain the productivity and to maintain the ecological balance.


Rainwater Conservation for Sustainable Agriculture, J.C.Katyal and S.K. Das, Indian Farming  44(9) 65-70 (1994)


Creation of visible water resources on an area basis through rainwater conservation seems to be the only option on which sound foundations of sustainable rainfed agriculture can be laid.  Possibilities exist.  Opportunities need to be carved out.


Watershed Management Technology for Hill Region, A.Singh and R.N.Prasad, Indian Farming 39(10) 23-24 (1990)

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The Fertiliser Association of  India

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